Illinois Alpha Delta Phi








Linguistic Clarifications
Definitions for Various Types of Fraternities and Societies
Memorial of Samuel Eells
Samuel Eells  1810-1842
More About The Founder
History of Samuel Eells in Outline Form
 The College Graduate and Public Life
The Fraternity's Job
The American College Fraternity
The Future of Fraternity
The College Fraternity and Alpha Delta Phi
The Literary Aspect of Our Fraternity
Alpha Delta Phi Is A Lifelong Experience
Greek Alphabet
The Badge
The Crest
Fraternity Color, Flower, Pledge Pin, And Greek Letters
The Alpha Delta Phi Society
Active Chapters
Affiliates, Society Chapters
Inactive Chapters
What is Alpha Delta Phi International?
Alpha Delta Phi International
Board of Governors
Field Representative, Executive Director, Publications
Alpha Delta Phi Foundation
Awards, Scholarships, and Competitions
Among The Alumni
The Constitution of The Alpha Delta Phi





The word, "fraternity", is found in English first in the late 14th century writings of the poet Gower.  It was adapted from the Old French "fraternite", which, in turn, was ultimately derived from the Latin, "frater" and related forms meaning "brother".


"Sorority" was invented soon after as the feminine equivalent of "fraternity".  It may have come from the Medieval Latin "sororitas"; or it may have been adapted directly from the Latin "soror", meaning "sister", with the English suffix "-ity" added on analogy with "fraternity".  It is also a surprisingly old work in our language, being found in the 16th century works of More, where it was spelled "sororiti".  In the following century it appeared in America in the Heresiography of Pagitt, who wrote, "The Synod of New England maketh not only the fraternity but (as they speak) the sorority to be the subject of the ... power of keys."


Investigation suggests that it is likely that women's Greek-letter societies first began describing themselves as "fraternities" simply because they were imitations of men's organizations or in order to distinguish their character from the "societies" that were so popular in the eighteen sixties and seventies.  In time someone suggested that "sorority" would be more apt; some adopted this newer term, while others retained the earlier one.


Linguists would find little justification in the statement sometimes published, that "fraternity" is derived from the Greek "phrater", meaning "a member of a tribe", for neither the spelling with "f" nor the suffix "-nity" bespeak such an origin.  Nor can it be said that "fraternity" is a better form because its roots are older than those of "sorority".  Both can be traced back to Indo-European, that reconstructed language from which were derived such later tongues as Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, German, Russian, and English.  Thus the English "brother", and the Latin "frater", and the Greek "phrater" are cognates, as are "sister" and "soror", the original Indo-European forms being traditionally written as "bhrater" (brother) and "swesor" (sister).


The question of which is the "correct" designation for women's organizations comes up periodically, and we are indebted to David P. Harris of the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J., for digging up the facts on this subject.  In his opinion there is no reason why women's groups should not permit or even encourage their designation as "fraternities" if they choose to do so.  Their specialized use of the term has already become generally accepted.  Such widening of meaning is a common kind of semantic development and requires no apology nor ingenious justification.


            Reprinted from the Interfraternity Research and Advisory Council



Social Fraternities


Men's social college fraternities are mutually exclusive, self-perpetuating groups, which organize the social life of their members, in accredited colleges and universities, as a contributing factor to their educational programs; and draw their membership primarily from the undergraduate body of the institution.  - National Interfraternity Conference.


Women's social Greek-letter fraternities accredited by National Panhellenic Conference are primarily groups of friends whose chapters are in accredited colleges and universities, but which, in addition to their individual purposes, are committed to cooperation with college authorities to maintain high social and scholastic standards and which do not limit membership to any one department or school of a college or university.


            - From the National Panhellenic Conference.


Professional Fraternities


A professional fraternity is a specialized fraternity which limits its student membership to a specific field of professional education in accredited colleges and universities offering courses leading to recognized degrees therein: which maintains mutually exclusive membership in the field, but may initiate members of the general social fraternities; and which organizes its group life specifically to promote professional competency and achievement within its fields.  The professional fraternity confines its membership to qualified male students (and faculty members) in a particular profession who are pursuing an organized curriculum leading to a professional degree in that field, has a minimum scholastic requirement for membership, usually above passing, elects its members after a careful investigation and generally by a unanimous ballot.  It initiates members early in their professional college life, enabling them to participate actively and beneficially in the professional aims of the fraternity, holds frequent meetings, conducts professional and social activities, and frequently maintains a chapter house or quarters.  Professional fraternities also sponsor programs of special value to alumni members.

            - From the Professional Interfraternity Conference.


Honor Societies


An Honor Society is an association of primarily collegiate members whose chapter purposes are to encourage and recognize superior scholarship and/or leadership achievement either in broad fields of education or in departmental fields at either undergraduate or graduate levels.  Basic standards and requirements for membership include the following:


1. General honor societies, which base membership eligibility relies primarily upon the attainment of high scholarship in a broad field of study, shall elect members from the highest 20 percent of the class in scholarship;


2. General honor societies, which base membership eligibility relies primarily upon all-around leadership attainment in student affairs, shall elect from the highest 35 percent of the class in scholarship;


3. Departmental honor societies, which elect persons actively interested in a specific field, shall elect from the upper 35 percent of the class in scholarship;


4. Election to membership shall be irrespective of membership or affiliation with other organizations and associations;


5. Membership shall be conferred solely on the basis of character and specific eligibility;


6. No solicitation or propaganda, such as rushing and social pressure, shall be used to insure acceptance of invitation of membership;


7. Collegiate chapters of member ACHS societies shall be established only in four-year or more degree-granting colleges and universities that are accredited by the appropriate national or regional accrediting agency.


Reprinted from the Interfraternity Research and Advisory Council




Samuel Eells, the provident founder of Alpha Delta Phi, most eloquently expressed the principle purpose of the fraternity.  It was his intent that "this new association, with a true philosophical spirit, looking to the entire man, develop his whole being - moral, social and intellectual."  Since its beginning at Hamilton College in 1832, The Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity has sought to provide a comprehensive growth experience for young men at leading universities and colleges in Canada and the United States.


As lifelong members of a fraternal brotherhood, Brothers unite to participate in an atmosphere of energetic and concerted interaction where the moral, social and intellectual aspects of each man's character may grow and flourish.  Special importance is attached to five areas: enhancing personal self esteem; promoting constructive respect and caring for others with diverse backgrounds and personalities; developing leadership qualities and self discipline; improving scholastic and literary skills; and serving the University and community.


Fraternity involvement is characterized by undertaking responsibilities within a group of peers while at the same time having contact with interested alumni.  This process enhances individual self respect as well as fostering responsible concern for others within the chapter.  The Fraternity's tradition is to seek members from a broad spectrum of backgrounds, interests and skills.  In this climate, each Brother develops an appreciation of those different from himself, and comes to understand how the viewpoints of others can enrich his own life.


The formulation and pursuit of group goals requires the active and disciplined participation of all brothers.  Responsible involvement in managing the chapter programs and physical plant extends the leadership and team skills of the members.


In addition to chapter orientated activities, Brothers are encouraged to undertake projects which benefit both University and community.  Along with the additional growth in group skills, each member comes to appreciate the personal and societal rewards associated with contributing to a larger community.


Standards of behavior and achievement are not rigidly imposed; however, excellence is strongly encouraged.  Moreover, there is a strong emphasis on brotherhood and blending one's personal interests with those of the chapter.  Alpha Delta Phi has many programs and activities directed toward helping chapters and individual brothers set objectives and realize their goals.


Many special benefits accrue to members of Alpha Delta Phi.  The most obvious and immediate is the unique opportunity for a practical leadership experience while learning to work harmoniously within a group.  Over a longer horizon, there is the joy of lifelong friendships with men who hold similar aims and ideals.  Many of these friendships span age differences.  Undergraduate brothers often receive their first introduction to a profession or a business career through successful alumni who have had similar experiences.  And later on, interested alumni may also foster leadership qualities in the next generation through their participation in chapter advisory boards and in regional activities.




                                           His Connection with the Alpha Delta Phi Society


There is a large body of educated men in this country, many of them among the most prominent in the departments of literature and science, and in the ranks of professional and political life, who will feel special interest in these reminiscences, as the name of Samuel Eells has become familiar to them from its repetition in scenes which they remember with pleasure.  These are the members of the Alpha Delta Phi Society, an organization which has been of so much value to those who have been connected with it that it is cherished with peculiar affection and respect, even after college days have long been passed.  It was with feelings of deepest interest that Mr. Eells watched the growing prosperity of this Society, although it was hardly beyond its infancy at the time of his death.  He believed it would be greatly useful, and nothing accomplished by him afforded him such satisfaction as the promise of the several chapters which were bearing the spirit of A.Δ.Φ. into the leading colleges of the land.


He has given a short account of the circumstances which led to the formation of the Society; and as it will be read with interest by those thus related, for whom, indeed, for the most part, this memorial is prepared, it has been thought there can be no impropriety in its insertion here.  As it was written, however, amidst the pressure of other engagements and in haste, and as some parts of it are necessarily omitted, it will be seen that it is quite incomplete.


"When I entered Hamilton College in the year 1827, there were two Literary Societies in the institution, viz:  the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian, afterwards called the Phi Gamma Alpha, and finally, from its junction with the Irving Society, the Union.  Between these a strong and active rivalry had been maintained; and such, at the time I allude to, was their mutual jealousy and activity, that I almost determined to join neither.  But importunity and persecution were only to be escaped by becoming attached to one or the other.  I finally gave my name to the Philopeuthian; but the affairs of both had been so desperate during the unhappy condition of the college for some time previous to this year, that they prepared now for a mighty struggle for the vantage ground, as the whole institution seemed to breathe a new life.  It is not necessary to detail the history of this struggle, which continued for three years, with abundant bitterness on both sides.  So far was the competition carried that it took possession of the best academics in the State.  Scarcely a student of any pretensions to scholarship presented himself for admission to college who had not been solicited by both Societies.  The means of persuasion were often of the most unscrupulous kind.  Neither side hesitated to make use of dissimulation and deceit, and degrading compliances, until college life exhibited a scene of jealousy and strife, in which he who could plan and successfully execute a low manoeuvre, or put upon a fabrication the guise of plausibility, became equally formidable to the opposite party and a favorite with his own.  The effect of this state of things on the character of the students was deplorable, and among a few of us was a subject of common and frequent regret.  It seemed to chill all the noble and generous affections of the youthful spirit, and destroyed or corrupted the very elements of honorable and manly character.  Besides drawing off attention from study, it alienated bosom friends, divided classes, and embittered not only public exercises, but all associations for mutual improvement, whether moral, literary or religious.  It was a contemplation of these and similar evils, that first suggested to me the idea of establishing a Society of a higher nature, and more comprehensive and better principles; one that should combine all the advantages of a union for intellectual and literary purposes, and at the same time maintain the integrity of youthful character, and cultivate those finer feelings which it was the effect of college societies in general to extinguish or enfeeble.  The undertaking was an arduous one.  The obstacles to be encountered were formidable enough from the very nature of the enterprise, and were rendered much more so by the general distrust with which I was aware the plan would be received by those on whom I mainly relied.


"In the first place, the new association must differ from others, in all points necessary to the exclusion of that jealousy and angry competition which I had always felt to be the bane of college life.  In the second place, it must be built on a more comprehensive scale than other societies, in regard to its intellectual proportions; providing for every variety of taste and talent, and embracing every department of literature and science.  In the third place, it must be national and universal in its adaptations, so as not merely to cultivate a taste for literature or furnish the mind with knowledge; but with a true philosophical spirit looking to the entire man, so as to develop his whole being - moral, social and intellectual.  In the fourth place, it must be made a living, growing, self-perpetuating institution, which can be done only by stamping its whole character and arrangements with a great and manifest superiority to other societies, and by attaching its members to it, by an indissoluble bond of union and binding them to real and personal interest in its welfare.  Finally, its actual, visible organization must be deferred till the general plan can be thoroughly matured, every preliminary settled, every influence secured, that may enable the enterprise to command assurance of success.


SAMUEL EELLS  1810-1842 by Claude M. Fuess AMHERST 1905


Samuel Eells, the inspired Hamilton College graduate who founded Alpha Delta Phi, wrote its Covenant and determined its ideals, must always be a source of interest to later brothers.  We should like to have detailed information as to how he lived, what books he preferred, what daily routine he followed, how his motives and ambitions developed, indeed all that stirred in his restless brain during the tumultuous heyday of Jacksonian Democracy.  Unfortunately, the materials for an intimate biography are not extensive.  A few of his letters and formal addresses throw light on his unusual character.  He left behind a brief account of the circumstances leading to the inception of the Fraternity.  A memorial volume of the current conventional type was edited by his brother, James, in 1873, more than thirty years after his death.  The only existing portrait, while attractive enough, has little distinctive individuality; and we lack descriptions of him by classmates and friends.


In an unpublished account of his family genealogy, Eells imagines some future descendant pursuing his memorandum and then placing his hand thoughtfully on this brow and wondering what manner of man was this Samuel Eells who thus meditated and wrote in the early nineteenth century, who practiced law in Cincinnati and was graduated at Hamilton College.  Although I am not his kinsman, this is precisely what I am trying to do in this sketch of the Founder.  The vague and undiscriminating eulogies left by his contemporaries offer no help in recreating a flesh-and-blood figure.  When we are told that, as a child, he showed no tendencies towards "vicious habits", or that, as a collegian, "he had not an enemy among his fellow students", we long for anecdotes which, however trivial, would transform this colourless paragon into the very human personality that he must have been.  We do, however, possess the evidence which proves him to have been the tragic victim of a dynamic turbulent mind in a feeble body, endowed with exceptional talent which, except in the founding of Alpha Delta Phi, never came to full fruition.  Only the Fraternity, established when he was but twenty-two years old, has endured through more than a century of rapidly evolving American society as the continuing symbol of his greatness.


In the document already mentioned, Eells says of his forbear, "I believe there are few families in this country who can trace the genealogy through so many links of the ascending chain and find cause to congratulate themselves on being descendants of a nobler or better ancestry."  Of supreme importance in Eells' development was his Puritan inheritance from his earliest colonial ancestor, John Eells, through an almost unbroken line of Congregational clergyman - men whom he calls "pious and educated progenitors."  In nearly every paragraph Samuel wrote or spoke was a strong, sincere emphasis on morality and religion.  His father, the missionary pastor of a church in Westmoreland, then a frontier hamlet in the Mohawk Valley, often took long and lonely horseback journeys through the wilderness, labouring for the Western Educational Society.  Samuel, the second son in a family of five boys and one girl who grew to maturity, was born on May 18, 1810, and brought up in an atmosphere of simple culture and piety, like that in The Vicar of Wakefield.  His education, began at his mother's knee with the Bible as a textbook, was animated by seriousness of purpose.  This seriousness lasted all his life.


Even as a youngster Samuel was not physically robust, and the grim symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis - then known as consumption - showed themselves very early.  When he was barely fifteen, confinement to his studies broke down his health; and his observant father placed him during the warm summer months on a farm so that he could get fresh air and exercise.  By 1826, he had recovered sufficiently to attend Clinton Academy, probably the best school in Oneida County, where he displayed a precocious ability in writing and public speaking and was prepared acceptably for Hamilton College.  Once again, however his vitality was unequal to the nervous strain, and he was obliged to leave almost immediately.  Still only a boy he was ill and without money.  In those days physicians were not agreed on the proper therapy for tuberculosis, but Eells decided for himself that his only hope lay in an outdoor existence.  A sea voyage seemed to offer what he instinctively wanted.  Consequently, with no companion and almost no financial resources, he set out on foot for New Haven, carrying his bag over his shoulders.


For almost a year the youth spent most of his time on sailing vessels, not on a luxurious passenger's cabin but as a hard-working seaman.  Gradually his vigor and resistance returned, and he even held his own with the tough crew of a fishing vessel off the Newfoundland Banks.  Reinvigorated and ambitious, he returned to Westmoreland in November, 1828, and immediately matriculated at Hamilton as a Freshman, being certainly the most mature and experienced member of his class.  The progress of his ailment had been temporarily retarded, and he was ready for the arduous study which always brought him happiness.


Samuel Eells' father had been one of the committee of three who organized and opened Hamilton College in 1812, secured its charter from the State of New York, and formulated its curriculum and general policies.  For this reason, as well as because of its convenient location not far from Westmoreland, it was natural that Samuel should go there.  In 1828, however, the young and small college was apparently moribund.  The President was at odds with the Trustees, who had rashly spent on building the income and capital which should have been appropriated for salaries.  The disgruntled faculty were, at the same moment, engaged in a controversy with the Trustees over a matter of undergraduate discipline.  In 1829, ten Trustees had resigned in disgust, the faculty consisted only of the President and one Professor, and the student body had shrunk to nine.  It did not seem likely that the institution could keep from disintegrating completely.


No classes were graduated in 1829 or 1830, but the few undergraduates were loyal, new teachers were secured, and by Eells' Junior year a respectable number of students were enrolled.  With his prestige and intelligence he was quickly recognized as a leader; and his skill in guiding others was soon demonstrated in a remarkable way.  It was a period when literary societies of an exclusive and secret nature were being formed in American colleges.  The origins of this movement are not easy to trace, partly because the records are not available and partly because the members could not disclose some of the "mysteries"; but Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities presents the bare facts.  Eells himself was no innovator.  Kappa Alpha founded at Union College in the autumn of 1825, is "the oldest secret brotherhood of a social and literary character which has had a continuous existence in American colleges", and is called by Baird "the parent of the present vast system of American college fraternities."  It was closely followed at Union by two rivals - Sigma Phi (March 4, 1827) and the Delta Phi (November 18, 1827).  Baird suggests that the model for all three was Phi Beta Kappa, established on December 5, 1776, at the College of William and Mary, in Williamsburg, Virginia.  Originally Phi Beta Kappa, like the Masonic Order, was esoteric, with a badge, a grip, an oath of fidelity, a ritual, and an idealistic and spiritual purpose; but neither Baird nor anybody else has explained how these features happened to develop at Williamsburg in the midst of the Revolutionary War.  At any rate, Phi Beta Kappa soon changed to an honourary scholarship society, as it is today; while the three later fraternities at Union - the so-called "Union Triad" - furnished the pattern for the unique American college-fraternity system as it exists in the twentieth century.


In his own account of what happened, Eells declared that, when he arrived on the Hamilton campus, he found there two literary societies - the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian - the latter of which he rather reluctantly joined; but, discovering these rival groups indulged in recruiting tactics little short of unscrupulous, he was led by his moral sense to consider the creation of a new fraternity which would, as a positive policy, disavow what he regarded as jealous and unsavory competition.  In the autumn of 1830, while these ideas were germinating in his fertile mind, a deputation from the Union Chapter of Kappa Alpha visited Hamilton with the intention, frankly disclosed of establishing there a new chapter of their fraternity.  Eells, who had his own theories and desires, and who was also not without the instincts of a politician, defeated these alien plans, and then proposed to selected members of both Phoenix and Philopeuthian that they found a new society, based on the loftiest of intellectual and moral ideals - a society which, within a limited community and membership, would have some of the aspects and influence of a religion.


The first meeting of this select group, held on a winter's evening in Eells' room, Number 15, Back Middle, Kirkland Hall, was attended by five students.  Three of them were Seniors: Eells himself, Lorenzo Latham, who died in 1860 in New Orleans; and John C. Underwood, who died in 1873, in Richmond, Virginia.  The two Juniors were Oliver Andrew Morse, who died in 1870, in New York City, and Henry Lemuel Storrs, of a famous clerical family, who later became a distinguished clergyman and died prematurely, in 1852 in Yonkers, New York.  Most of the actual planning was evidently carried through by Eells, who had an orderly as well as imaginative mind.  According to his own testimony, he drew up the Constitution, and he and Latham together devised the emblems and the symbols.  Later in the year 1832 other members were added, and the mother chapter of Alpha Delta Phi was thus in full operation at the time of Eells' graduation.


As if endowed with some prophetic quality, Samuel Eells, in a statement prepared some years later, left behind him his conception of what Alpha Delta Phi intended to be and to do.  It comes down to us as an authentic expression of the Founders design:


"In the first place, the new association must differ from others, in all points necessary to the exclusion of that jealousy and angry competition which I have always felt to be the bane of college life.  In the second place, it must be built on a more comprehensive scale than other societies, in regard to its intellectual proportions, providing for every variety of taste and talent, and embracing every department of literature and science.  In the third place, it must be national and universal in its adaptations, so as not merely to cultivate a taste for literature or furnish the mind with knowledge; but with a true philosophical spirit looking to the entire man, so as to develop his whole being - moral, social, and intellectual.  In the fourth place, it must be made a living, growing, self-perpetuating institution, which can be done only by stamping its whole character and arrangements with a great and manifest superiority to other societies, and by attaching its members to it, by an indissoluble bond of union and binding them to real and personal interests in its welfare.  Finally, its actual visible organization must be deferred till the general plan can be thoroughly matured, every preliminary settled, every influence secured, that may enable the enterprise to command assurance of success."


Obviously, this is the conception of a thoughtful, far sighted mind, insistent on sketching the design before raising the structure.  All the essential preliminaries were pondered and settled before that crucial first meeting was held.  The intellectual basis was, of course, unmistakable.  Members were to associate with one another because of a need for extending their knowledge and sharpening their wits.  The whole fraternity movement in its early stages was in part an attempt by scholarly young men to provide for themselves the acquaintance with English literature which college courses did not then supply.  It was also affected by the intense interest in debating and public speaking aroused by the Revolutionary orators and later by the "God-like Dan'l" Webster himself.  Judging by Samuel Eells' own oratorical efforts, he must have admired and tried to imitate Webster, whose masterly addresses at Plymouth and Bunker Hill were already being disclaimed by collegiate prize seekers and whose Reply To Hayne was delivered while Eells was still an undergraduate.  The literary background of Alpha Delta Phi was manifest and significant, wholly natural in the light of earlier experiments in undergraduate group organization.  But Eells deliberately undertook to go beyond this and link the members together in their devotion to something deeper.  Although he was, as we have seen, intuitively and persistently a scholar, his vibrant and comprehensive imagination transcended the narrow bounds of mere knowledge derived from books.  Something of his philosophy was revealed in his Valedictory Address to his classmates ‑ an address which, because of a prevailing epidemic of cholera, was never delivered.  From this I shall quote only the passage in which he suggests that it is the duty of all his hearers to prepare for "another and happier state of the faithful and conscientious discharge of our duties to God and our fellow men."  I am sure that the spiritual significance of the Fraternity meant much to him.  He wove his own personal ideals, his religious faith, into the warp and woof of Alpha Delta Phi.


It is a pity that we cannot more clearly visualize this young Hamilton graduate, the brightest member of the Class of 1832.  His portrait, painted some years later, shows him with a resolute, almost stern, expression, like some belated Cotton Mather or Jonathan Edwards.  He was tall, with raven hair, high cheek bones and pointed chin, and a piercing gleam in his dark eyes - eyes which might have been those of a crusader.  His contemporaries stressed his pallor and the emaciation accompanying his disease.  The effect which he produced as an orator was long remembered by those who heard him.  Never flippant or cynical and seldom humourous, he was impressive because of his rich voice and his overwhelming sincerity.  He could not have been painfully sanctimonious, for he owned copies of Smollet and Fielding, but he had no time or inclination for levity.  Altogether he was a man to be reckoned with - a man who, but for the probability of recurring illness, was certain of a bright future.


Leaving behind him his Fraternity fully formed, Eells set out after Commencement in 1832 to join his father, who had moved some months before to Ohio.  As he said "Good-bye!" to one of his Alpha Delta Phi brethren, he did not expect to live more than ten years longer, but he intended to crowd a maximum of achievement into that decade.  As a matter of fact, his career was almost terminated before it was even started.  The dreaded cholera had spread everywhere that summer and after Eells had boarded the boat at Buffalo for Cleveland, he was attacked by the infection.  The frightened passengers fled from him as soon as they discovered the situation and insisted that he should be set ashore at the first landing.  Only one, less timid or more sympathetic than the others, brought him some calomel and tendered a little assistance.  At Dunkirk, in spite of his protests, he was deposited on the wharf in an abandoned shed and left to his fate.  Here again no Good Samaritan, not even a physician ventured near him, but he ultimately persuaded two small boys to bring him some hot water and more medicine.  There the Founder of Alpha Delta Phi lay for a week alone, unfed, even unattended, on the verge of death.  Then miraculously he rallied and proceeded to his destination.  This adventure did nothing to strengthen his none too sturdy constitution.


It would have been natural for Samuel to follow his ancestors into the Christian ministry, and he would have been well fitted for that calling.  Instead, however, he turned to the law - perhaps in emulation of Daniel Webster - and like him also he used teaching as a crutch to support himself while he was studying.  Before long, he was in Springfield, Ohio, soliciting pupils for his school.  Beginning with only two children, he soon had a full classroom, doing all the administration and instruction himself.  Meanwhile, in his evenings and on Sundays he busied himself in the traditional fashion, reading Blackstone under the direction of a local attorney.  As usual, he was alert and industrious, but he was constantly taxing his feeble body more than it could endure.  Somehow the months passed, and in February, 1835, he was admitted to the Ohio Bar, turned over his now prosperous school to other hands, and hung out his shingle in Cincinnati.  Although clients came only slowly, his quality was soon recognized and before the close of that year he accepted a partnership with Salmon P. Chase, later Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury and Chief Justice of the United States.  During this period, labouring with his habitual tenacity, he built up a substantial reputation in that section of Ohio.


At the close of 1837, with characteristic ambition, Eells withdrew from his firm and opened his own office, but his health was getting even more precarious and his prospects were accordingly dismal.  In various ways he sought rest and diversion, but on each occasion when he returned to his desk he was unable to meet the responsibilities of his practice.  His case, as he well knew, was hopeless.  In sheer desperation he spent several months with his father at Amherst, Ohio; and during the winter of 1839-40 he sailed to a warmer climate in Cuba.  In September, 1840, when he had given the law one more unsuccessful trial, he broke down completely and resigned himself to death.  Entertaining himself by preparing a history of his family for one of his younger relatives, he ended:


"And now, my beloved kinsman, farewell till thou reachest thy home on the other side of the gulf.  I will be there on the shore to meet thee!  Till then God bless thee, and - Farewell!"


This brave but pathetic manuscript is dated August 16, 1841.  As he grew weaker, he was taken into the home of one of his Cincinnati friends, Seth W. Pomeroy.  There on Sunday morning, March 13, 1842, he died quite peacefully.  He had not yet completed his thirty-second year.


Eells' friends might well have placed on his tombstone Hamlet's words to his father's ghost, "Rest, rest, perturbed spirit!"  But he was not allowed to be quiet even in his grave.  He was interred in the City Cemetery of Cincinnati, but seventeen years later the casket, for some family reason, was moved to a vault in Cleveland, Ohio.  In 1929, when the new Chapter House at Hamilton was occupied, the remains were transferred to the Samuel Eells Memorial Hall on the campus which he loved and where his best work was done.


To the Fraternity, which was so largely his own creation, Samuel Eells never wavered in his loyalty.  Busy though he was professionally, he found time to found a second chapter of Alpha Delta Phi, in 1835, at Miami University, in Oxford, Ohio.  Before his death, and in several instances through his instigation, chapters were also established in Columbia (1836), in Yale (1836), in Amherst (1836), in Brown (1836), in Harvard (1837), in Geneva (1840), and in Bowdoin (1841).  Of special interest to Eells was the formation of the Hudson Chapter, at Western Reserve College in Northern Ohio; and although he was then desperately ill, he managed to take the trip to Hudson and there on July 1, 1841, took part in the first initiation ceremonies.  By the time of his death, Alpha Delta Phi was broad and varied in its scope, with several flourishing chapters and rapidly mounting prestige.  Eells held the position of National President from 1832 until 1836, when at his request, he was succeeded by his friend, Charles Kilbourn, Hamilton, 1833.  It is Eells' own jeweled badge which the International President, by tradition, is privileged to wear during his term of office.


After examining attentively what others wrote about him and what he said about himself, I have the impression that he was unavoidably a lonely man.  We hear nothing of any love affair.  Probably his awareness of malady and an explicable unwillingness to transmit it to children would have prevented him from marrying, even if he had had any such impulse.  But it is significant that in his memoir not one women, with the exception of his mother, is mentioned; and all his close relationships seem to have been with his own sex.  He had many devoted male friends, as we have seen, but he was uncomforted by a women's sympathy or affection.


Eells' biographer emphasized three attributes of his which seemed to him worth special mention:  his extraordinary personal magnetism, which all his life assured him a position of leadership among those with whom he was associated; his "ease in conversation", which made him "the center and life of any circle in which he might be"; and his unostentatious yet avowed and controlling piety", which destined him to be an "intelligent and true servant of God".  Doubtless much more could have been said about these and other characteristic traits.  I should like however, to stress particularly his accomplishments as an orator.  Although he enjoyed no small success as a practicing attorney, he confessed that the law was for him an unsatisfying profession.  It involved, he said, "severe and incessant labour", and he was disturbed because it introduced him "to a very dark part of human nature."  Such distinction as he achieved was due largely to his fondness for public speaking.  Indeed, had his health been more normal he might have gone far in either politics or preaching, for he loved to talk on his feet.  Some address of his which have been preserved - one at Miami University on "The Study of Classics", one before the College of Teachers in Cincinnati, and one just before his death to City Bible Society of the same city - making it unquestionable that he was a cogent and persuasive orator, serious in his manner, logical in his thought and skilled in rhetorical phrasing.  He had studied with profit his Demosthenes and Cicero, his Burke and Webster, and he did have opportunities to follow their methods in his pleading before court.


Eells was President of the Biennial Convention of the Alpha Delta Phi Society held at New Haven, Connecticut, on August 15, 1839, and delivered there his best-known oration, under the title "On the Law and Means of Social Advancement."  Published in a pamphlet of sixty-nine pages, it was 24,000 words in length and must have taken at least two and one-half hours to deliver!  Very few addresses, even in that voluble period, could have tested more painfully the endurance of an audience or the physical energy of the speaker!


Eells could, in an emergency, gather his powers for such an ordeal.  Nevertheless, he was seldom really well, and the most important factor in his career was his disease, from the fatiguing symptoms of which he could not escape and which made it seem as if he were trapped by circumstances.  Repeatedly checked in his aspirations, often unable to carry through what he had started, he could hardly be buoyant or jocular; and it is not strange that he regarded life and its problems with accelerating sobriety.  If we get the impression of a rather somber personality, it is because he had little to make him cheerful.


Above all Samuel Eells left on his contemporaries the impression of a Christian gentleman of heroic stature.  All the evidence, interpreted through our modern eyes, indicates that his life was virtuous, not because of lack of temptation but because of positive moral decision.  His career had both philosophy and pattern.  In the rough-and-tumble of a Gloucester-fisherman's daily routine he commanded respect.  He battled defiantly against a debilitating disease.  He competed on even terms and without complaint against his rival in a most exciting profession, giving up the fight only when he was too much exhausted to struggle any longer.  Finally, he conceived and created a fraternal order, which has persisted through changing generations and, even now, after more than a century and a quarter, claims the devotion of its members.


MORE ABOUT THE FOUNDER by Charles P. Eells  Hamilton 1874


As his nearest living kinsman I am asked to tell something new of Samuel Eells.  We have a biography of him written by my Father, his brother, and many published sketches, from all of which we may fairly picture him to ourselves in his habit as he lived, but something still is left to tell of his antecedents and the surroundings by which the man we love was moulded.


His first American ancestor bearing the family name was John Eells, who migrated to Massachusetts Bay Colony from the West of England three hundred years ago in 1632, settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, was a freeman of the Colony and a prosperous farmer, but when the Long Parliament met in England in 1640 John Eells, that stern old Puritan, sniffed the coming battle from afar, sold all he owned for whatever price it would bring, and sailed back to England to take up arms for his religion, carrying with him his son Samuel, then "a suckling child" a few weeks old.  John never returned to America, but his son Samuel (from whom our Samuel was named) came back to his native Colony in 1661, and soon displayed marked ability and energy.  He practiced "the notable profession of law," and moreover was merchant, miller, selectman, Town Clerk, and often a Deputy in the General Court of Connecticut, as well as "a Major in the Regiment", fighting with distinction against the Indians in King Philip's War.  From him our Samuel loved to trace his descent through as unbroken line of four clergymen from father to son, each a graduate of Harvard or Yale.  Three ruled New England parishes piously and well, but the fourth, Samuel's father, glowed with missionary zeal, and followed the call of duty into the wilderness to Westmoreland in this County of Oneida, where he was pastor of the Congregational Church.  There our Samuel was born on Saturday, May 18, 1810, the second son in a family of five sons and one daughter, another daughter having died in infancy.  He was born into a harsh world which it is hard to imagine in these luxurious days, although it was here less than three generations ago.  Central New York was then the frontier, and Samuel's home in Westmoreland knew only log-cabins, home-spun, linsey-woolsey and tow-linen, flint and steel instead of matches, tallow-dips for lighting, rude make-shift furniture, the plainest of all home-grown, few books beside the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress and Foxe's Book of Martyrs, and those read only on Sunday which began at sunset Saturday night, every member of the family, large or small, being constantly busied on week days in endless household labors; the Mohawk stage road to Albany the only link with the outside world; the preacher's stipend a mere pittance of money, eked out by cordwood and by such contributions of necessary food as the parishioners could spare from their own scanty store.  In such surroundings Samuel spent his childhood, and although the family was united and loving, the unavoidable hardships undermined his health.  There was nothing unusual in this.  Infant mortality was high in those pioneering days of large families and few survivors; tuberculosis from which he suffered was especially rampant; and such conditions were general and inevitable.  In spite of them Samuel passed a happy boyhood amid warm family affection, and was taught at home by his parents.  Meantime his missionary father while faithfully performing the duties of his small parish was actively engaged in wider religious and educational work.  He encouraged and promoted the evolution of Hamilton College from its original Indian school.  When it was chartered by the State of New York he was one of the committee of three trustees who organized and opened the College and drew up its curriculum.  Then as the frontier receded he pursued it by becoming the District Secretary of the Western Educational Society, whose duties required long and frequent horseback journeys everywhere through the forests and clearings of Western New York.  During these absences Samuel's education continued under his mother's tuition, or perhaps under some village schoolmaster, for we are told that he "was confined strictly to study since he was four years of age."  He was already leading his boyish companions by his force of character, his keen intelligence, his affectionate disposition, and by that richest and rarest of human gifts which we awkwardly term "personal magnetism."


In his fifteenth year Samuel's health broke down, and his wise father took him from his books and procured farm work for him for two seasons.  In 1826, he attended the Clinton Academy where he displayed unsuspected talent in declamation and in literary composition.  In the summer of the following year 1827 he entered the freshman class at Hamilton, but a recurrence of his malady forced him to leave College almost immediately, and he decided to try a sea-voyage to benefit his health.  This does not mean for him a deck-chair on an ocean-liner as it might now-a-days, nor even a snug cabin in a packet vessel of the period, but a sailor's hammock swung in the forecastle of any craft which would hire him.  He had no money; his father could spare him none, so he must work his passage.  He made his way to New haven with great effort in his weakened condition, most of the way on foot, and there he shipped on a coasting schooner to Chesapeake Bay, but he found the voyage too short for much improvement in his health.  Looking for another ship which would take on such a sickly young landlubber he followed the coast north through New York and half the harbors of New England until in New Bedford he succeeded in getting a berth on a fishing smack for the Banks of Newfoundland by agreeing to pay the skipper half the fish he might catch.  On his return he utilized the strength and skill gained in those former cruises by shipping again to the coast of Nova Scotia.  At last in November 1828 he came home to Westmoreland, having supported himself entirely by his own exertions during his absence, and richer by a new wardrobe, regained strength for a time at least, and the discipline of his varied experiences as a man among men.  Without delay he entered Hamilton again as a freshman, this time in the class of 1832, having lost a college year by his absence.  He found the college at the lowest ebb in its history, torn by a bitter controversy between the President and most of the trustees, and by another even more bitter controversy between the student body and all the powers that were.  The Board of Trustees had spent the permanent funds of the endowment in erecting college buildings which were still far from completion, so that hardly any money was left to pay instructors.  The Board had also interfered with management and discipline by the Faculty in a case of student wrong doing, which had enraged and alienated the undergraduates.  In consequence, as we learn from President North's half-century letter, in Samuel's Sophomore year ten trustees had resigned, only two permanent officers of the college remained, namely President Davis and the professor of Chemistry and of the students only nine were left, all of them being members of the two lower classes.  President North records the names of these "immortal nine" as he calls them, among them being Samuel Eells, and it is worthy of note that each of the nine in after life became distinguished in one way or another.  The tide quickly turned, necessary funds were raised, the Faculty was reconstituted and although no students were graduated in the classes of 1829 and 1830 the ranks of the remaining classes were steadily recruited.  Samuel's sea-faring life had been a useful preparation for his four years of driving under bare poles in this stormy college course.  He naturally took the lead there as always.  The radiant boy impressed his inspiring personality upon his fellows, and in his senior year he immortalized himself among the college men of America by evoking from that welter of conflict the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity, instinct with his character and ideals.  I shall not dwell upon the founding of the Society, which is more or less familiar to us all.  Misfortune still attended him at graduation, for although he was appointed valedictorian of his class there were no Commencement exercises in 1832, owing to a terrible epidemic of cholera which forbade all public gatherings.  Samuel's father had removed to Ohio the year before, and Samuel set out to follow him thither upon his graduation, intending to join his elder brother in establishing an academy at Worthington in that State.  He had long known that consumption held him in its grip, and before leaving Clinton he told a friend prophetically that he did not expect to live longer than ten years, and that he intended to crowd those years as full as possible.  He had got as far as Buffalo on his journey and had boarded a boat there bound for Ohio when cholera attacked him, and before sailing far he was prostrated by the disease.  The panic-stricken passengers all fled from him and insisted that he put ashore at once.  Of all on board only one young man ventured near enough to speak with him, and Samuel persuaded him to bring some calomel, of which he took as much as he dared.  At midnight they put him off at Dunkirk, leaving him to die in a shed on the wharf.  No one came near him there, not even the village doctor, except two young men who peeped through the door, actuated apparently by morbid curiosity.  Even in that extremity his magnetic appeal induced them to bring him some hot water and the rest of his calomel.  That done, they waited to see him die, nut he rallied instead, and after a week of misery he staggered from his shed and resumed his solitary journey.  Somehow, he reached his father's house at Worthington, where he soon decided that the proposed academy at Worthington could not succeed, and that plan was abandoned.


Leaving his family there Samuel went alone to Springfield, Ohio, without money, friends, influence, or health, intending to study law there and to support himself meanwhile by creating a school and teaching in it.  His school began with only two scholars, but grew rapidly to as many as he could handle, while he read more law than candidates usually did, and in addition delivered courses of public lectures on such subjects as Astronomy and Geology.  During these exhausting labors his disease made fearful progress.  In one of his letters written at that time he says: "For the last six weeks I have been very low and failing rapidly", but adds: "Perhaps you wonder that I am not alarmed for myself in these circumstances.  I answer, No! I am willing to suffer, to spend and be spent in this way, if such is the will of God."  Undaunted, he was admitted to the Ohio Bar in February, 1835, and went forthwith to Cincinnati to undertake the practice of the law.  Of his prospects he wrote in another letter: "I am entering on the duties of an arduous and crowded profession with no experience, dependent on it for my daily bread, with a host of competitors all interested in holding me under water, poor, friendless, a stranger in a strange place, doomed to hard work and little or no pay for a time at least.  But I am a young man free as the wind, with a tolerable education, inured to hard study by long habit, and capable of bringing to the work not great talents but what will supply their place, namely great diligence, exclusive devotion to the duties I attempt, a prompt and unswerving self-sacrifice, and withal a free high spirit of unconquerable independence that bows to nothing but God!"  There speaks a heroic soul!  He does not even mention among his handicaps the disease which was crushing him.


For several months he found no clients, but when opportunities began to present themselves he made the most of every one to such effect that before the close of his first year at the Bar he was offered a junior partnership by Salmon P. Chase, then a lawyer in established practice in Cincinnati, afterward to become Chief Justice of the United States.  Samuel gladly accepted this new association, which gave him at once abundant work and opportunity to display his legal attainments and his remarkable eloquence.  He remained with Mr. Chase about two years, during which time his professional standing became so assured that notwithstanding his failing health he resigned his partnership and opened an office of his own at the end of 1837, less than three years after his admission to the Bar.  His business speedily grew beyond his strength.  Once more he was stricken down, this time never to recover.  He took in a partner to maintain his office, and rode on horseback slowly and painfully to his father's house which was then at Amherst, in Ohio.  There he passed the summer of 1838, gaining some relief, and in the autumn he returned to his office, hoping to continue his practice in some measure, but he found himself too weak, although he kept up an intermittent struggle for a few months longer.  He spent the winter of 1840 in Cuba, and the following summer with his father.  In September he once more tried desperately to resume his office work, nut collapsed at once and then resigned himself to waiting for the inevitable end.  His many friends did all in their power to lighten his sufferings of mind and body, and it was in the home of one of them, Mr. S.W. Pomeroy of Cincinnati that the close of his long martyrdom came peacefully on Sunday morning, March 13, 1842, before he had completed his thirty second year.


His body was buried in the City Cemetery of Cincinnati, but was removed in 1859 to the family plot in Woodland Cemetery in Cleveland, and in recent years it has been entombed in a vault of the Alpha Delta Phi Chapter house on the Campus of Hamilton College, where his spirit has so long dwelt.  There may it rest forever!


Throughout his lingering agony Samuel Eells was sustained and soothed by an unwavering Christian faith.  He was at all times deeply and sincerely religious, but we must not think of him as sanctimonious or bigoted.  There was nothing narrow-minded about him.  He bequeathed to his brother James some of his books which have come down to me.  Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, Shelley, Keats, Campbell, and a half dozen minor poets.  Such a selection shows a broad and tolerant mind.


We mentioned his ancestry as one of the determining factors in moulding his character, and it became so not merely passively by descent but actively by adoption and study.  He gave much loving thought to it, and during that last sad summer of 1841 at his father's house in Amherst he wrote out his genealogy as fully as the sources in his reach would permit, closing that labor of love with an exhortation to kinsmen who would follow him.  He left no descendants of his body but if he could have foreseen this great family of his sons in the spirit he would surely addressed these last words of his to them.  No greeting from him could be more characteristic or appropriate, and I venture to read a portion of it to you now as his dying message to each one of us.  "Perhaps in the lapse of generations, when I who am now making these reflections, this present Samuel Eells who now sits at his table and pens these lines, shall be but a handful of dust sleeping in an unknown grave, - then perhaps some noble and ingenuous youth just starting full of hope and vigor in the great race of life will peruse this record, and when he has finished will lay his hand thoughtfully on his brow and wonder what manner of man was this Samuel Eells who thus thought and wrote, who practiced law in Cincinnati and was graduated at Hamilton College, - just as I wonder who and what manner of man was that other Samuel Eells who practiced law in Milford, Connecticut, was a 'Major in the Regiment', and died at Hingham in the Massachusetts Colony.  If any such person shall ever in the time to come take this record in his hands to him I would introduce myself,  and even across the gulf of time which divides us claim with him acquaintance and kindred.  Step forward, young man!  Let me look into thy face and take thy hand!  Tarry with me a little, for I have somewhat to say unto thee.  Life is before thee, an unexplored immeasurable sea, and thou art now just launching out upon the eventful voyage.  This voyage thou canst never take but once.  The shores which thou leavest now thou wilt never see again and if thou but shapest thy course aright, unspeakable is the prize that awaits thee at the distant port.  Hast thou well-considered the peril of thy adventure?  Hast thou carefully studied the great chart by which thou must keep thy reckoning?  Hast thou observed those beacon lights where thy fellow mariners have been shipwrecked?  And hast thou noted all the shoals and whirlpools, the narrow passages and sunken rocks that beset thy way?  Art thou well provided for tempests, and is thy bark in all respects well trimmed and seaworthy?  Hast thou taken on board that unerring Pilot who alone can conduct thee to port?  If thou hast such an outfit, launch away, and fear nothing.  Spread all thy canvas to the breeze, and God speed thee on thy way!  Life I say is before thee; what wilt thou do with it?  To live merely is nothing.  This prerogative thou hast in common with brutes.  But to live in good actions, to live seeing Him who is invisible; to reform thy heart and benefit thy kind; to prepare thyself for immortality, this is thy supreme good, thy chief end, the proper study and true glory of thy being.  Therefore let me counsel thee to be faithful to thyself.  Inspect the motives of thy actions.  Cherish every noble and virtuous sentiment, and scorn the very thought of a mean or dishonorable action.  Speak what thou believest.  Abhor all dissembling and always practice entire truthfulness.  So shalt thou never fear the face of man, and shall evermore be at peace with thy conscience and thy God.  In thy intercourse with the world let all thy actions be measured by the Golden Rule.  Let thy voice ever be heard on the side of liberty and human rights, and hate every sort of oppression with all thy heart.  Make no compromise with injustice, and defend the injured and oppressed even at the peril of thy life.


"And now, my beloved kinsman, farewell till thou reachest thy home on the other side of the gulf.  I will be there on the shore to meet thee.  Till then, God bless thee! and - Farewell!"


Let us make this parting message from him to our hearts, and love the self-forgetting dying man who could so salute us, and whose own clear soul shines out in every line.


Throughout those gloomy months of mental and physical torture, as his mind went sorrowing back, he must have been more than human if he did not silently grieve over his blighted aspirations, his promising career nipped in the bud, his hopes of useful service all blasted, his name and memory writ in water.  How those haunting griefs would have banished if some power had granted him a vision of these coming days, to show his name honored and cherished by thousands of brothers in his dear Fraternity, his memory kept green after a hundred years, and more than all such selfish consolations his own inspiring ideals and purposes embodied forever in the genius of Alpha Delta Phi, conquering and to conquer. What nobler earthly immortality could he have dreamed than that!




I. Samuel Eells in Childhood.

A. Born May 18, 1810 in Westmoreland, located in Oneida County in upstate New York.

B. Father was a missionary pastor in the Mohawk Valley village where Eells was born.

C. Eells' family consisted of five boys and one girl plus Eells' mother.

D. Early in life he was not healthy and showed symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis.

1. When he was 15 his health deteriorated so that his father placed him on a farm where he could be employed as a farmer while receiving the necessary outdoor environment.

2. By 1826 (age 16) he was well enough to attend Clinton Academy, where as a student he studied to prepare for Hamilton College.


II. Eells as a Hamilton student.

A. By 1827 was ready to enter Hamilton College.

B. Barely after entering Hamilton, Eells was forced to leave school because of sickness.

1. Became a sailor and fisherman.

2. By 1828 he was well enough to again re-enter Hamilton College.

C. By Eells' Junior year, he was recognized as a leader among his fellow students.

1. Eells recognized two literary societies, the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian, the second of which he joined.

2. Eells did not like the recruiting tactics of either group, nor did he like the lack of morality, therefore he decided by the fall of 1830 to form a new fraternity from select members of both groups.  Thus, in 1832, on the eve of October 29th, The Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity was formed.

D. Eells graduated in the spring of 1832 as valedictorian.


III. After graduation, Eells set out to join his father who had moved to Ohio the prior year.

A. On the way he contracted cholera on a boat from Buffalo to Cleveland.

1. Frightened passengers would not come near him and he was put ashore at Dunkirk where he persuaded two boys to bring him medicine.  Inside a shed where he was left alone, he recovered within a week.


IV. Rather than follow his ancestors into the ministry, Eells studied law.

A. In February of 1835 he was admitted to the Ohio Bar.

1. At the end of the first year, Eells was offered a partnership with Salmon P. Chase, who later became Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury and the Chief Justice of the United States

2. Eells accepted the offer and became highly successful while his health continued to worsen.

3. By 1837, he opened his own office and started his own law practice.


V. The last years of Samuel Eells' life.

A. His business grew beyond his strength and again he was stricken down.

B. In 1838 he went back to live with his father for the summer.

C. In the autumn he gave his law practice another try but he was too weak.

D. He spent the winter of 1840 in Cuba and the following summer with his father.

E. He died at the home of one of his friends, Mr. S.W. Pomeroy, on March 13, 1842.

F. He was buried in the City Cemetery in Cincinnati.

G. In 1859, his body was moved to Cincinnati and placed in the family plot in the Woodland Cemetery.

H. In recent years, he has been entombed in the Alpha Delta Phi house at Hamilton College.


The College Graduate and Public Life


by Teddy Roosevelt, Harvard 1880


There are always, in our national life, certain tendencies that give us ground for alarm, and certain others that give us ground for hope.  Among the latter we must put the fact that there has undoubtedly seen a growing feeling among educated men that they are in honor bound to do their full share of the work of American public life.


We have in this country an equality of rights.  It is the plain duty of every man to see that his rights are respected.  That weak good nature which acquiesces in wrong-doing, whether from laziness, timidity, or indifference, is a very unwholesome quality.  It should be second nature with every man to insist that he be given full justice.  But if there is an equality of rights, there is an equality of duties.  It is proper to demand more from the man with exceptional advantages than from the man without them.  A heavy moral obligation rests upon the man of means and upon the man of education to do their full duty by their country.  On no class does this obligation rest more heavily than upon the men with a collegiate education, the men who are graduates of our universities.  Their education gives them no right to feel the least superiority over any of their fellow citizens; but it certainly ought to make them feel that they should stand foremost in the honorable effort to serve the whole public by doing their duty as Americans in the body politic.  This obligation very possibly rests even more heavily upon the men of means; but of this it is not necessary now to speak.  The men of mere wealth never can have and never should have the capacity for doing good work that is possessed by the men of exceptional mental training; but that they may become both a laughingstock and a menace to the community is made unpleasantly apparent by that portion of the New York business and social world which is most in evidence in the newspapers.


To the great body of men who have had exceptional advantages in the way of educational facilities we have a right, then, to look for good service to the state.  The service may be rendered in many different ways.  In a reasonable number of cases, the man may himself rise to high political position.  That men actually do so rise is shown by the number of graduates of Harvard, Yale, Cornell, and our other universities who are now taking a prominent part in public life.  These cases must necessarily, however, form but a small part of the whole.  The enormous majority of our educated men have to make their own living, and are obliged to take up careers in which they must work heart and soul to succeed.  Nevertheless, the man of business and the man of science, the doctor of divinity and the doctor of law, the architect, the engineer, and the writer, all alike owe a positive duty to the community, the neglect of which they cannot excuse on any plea of their private affairs.  They are bound to follow understandingly the course of public events; they are bound to try to estimate and form judgment upon public men; and they are bound to act intelligently and effectively in support of the principles which they deem to be right and for the best interests of the country.


The most important thing for this class of educated men to realize is that they do not really form a class at all.  I have used the word in default of another, but I have merely used it roughly to group together people who have unusual opportunities of a certain kind.  A large number of the people to whom these opportunities are offered fail to take advantage of them, and a very much larger number of those to whom they have not seen offered succeed none the less in making them for themselves.  An educated man must not go into politics as such; he must go in simply as an American; and when he is once in, he will speedily realize that he must work very hard indeed, or he will be upset by some other American, with no education at all, but with much natural capacity.  His education ought to make him feel particularly ashamed of himself if he acts meanly or dishonorable, or in any way falls short of the ideal of good citizenship, and it ought to make him feel that he must show that he has profited by it; but it should certainly give him no feeling of superiority until by actual work he has shown that superiority.  In other words, the educated man must realize that he is living in a democracy and under democratic conditions, and that he is entitled to no more respect and consideration than he can win by actual performance.


This must be steadily kept in mind not only by educated men themselves, but particularly by the men who give the tone of our great educational institutions.  These educational institutions, if they are to do their best work, must strain every effort to keep their life in touch with the life of the nation at the present day.  This is necessary for the country, but it is very much more necessary for the educated men themselves.  It is a misfortune for any land if its people of cultivation take little part in shaping its destiny; but the misfortune is far greater for the people of cultivation.  The country has a right to demand the honest and efficient service of every man in it, but especially of every man who has had the advantage of rigid mental and moral training; the country is so much the poorer when any class of honest men fail to do their duty by it; but the loss to the class itself is immeasurable.  If our educated men as a whole become incapable of playing their full part in our life, if they cease doing their share of the rough hard work which must be done, and grow to take a position of mere dilettantism in our public affairs, they will speedily sink in relation to their fellows who really do the work of governing, until they stand toward them as a cultivated, ineffective man with a taste for sacrifice stands toward a great artist.  When once a body of citizens becomes thoroughly out of touch and out of temper with the national life, its usefulness is gone, and its power of leaving its mark on the time is gone also.


The first great lesson which the college graduate should learn is the lesson of work rather than of criticism.  Criticism is necessary and useful - it is often indispensable - but it can never take the place of action, or be even a poor substitute for it.  The function of the mere critic is of very subordinate usefulness.  It is the does of deeds who actually counts in the battle for life, and not the man who looks on and says how the fight ought to be fought, without himself sharing the stress and the danger.


There is, however, a need for proper critical work.  Wrongs should be strenuously and fearlessly denounced; evil principles and evil men should be condemned.  The politician who cheats or swindles, or the newspaper man who lies in any form, should be made to feel that he is an object of scorn for all honest men.  We need fearless criticism; but we need that it should also be intelligent.  At present, the man who is most apt to regard himself as an intelligent critic of our political affairs is often the man who knows nothing whatever about them.  Criticism which is ignorant or prejudiced is a source of great harm to the nation; and where ignorant or prejudiced critics are themselves educated men, their attitude does real harm also to the class to which they belong.



The tone of a portion of the press of the country toward public men, and especially toward political opponents, is degrading, all forms of coarse and noisy slander being apparently considered legitimate weapons to employ against men of the opposite party or faction.  Unfortunately, not a few of the journals that pride themselves upon being independent in politics, and the organs of cultivated men, betray the same characteristics in a less coarse but quite as noxious form.  All these journals do great harm by accustoming good citizens to see their public men, good and sad, assailed indiscriminately as scoundrels.  The effect is twofold:  the citizen learning, on the one hand, to disbelieve any statement he sees in any newspaper, so that the attacks on evil lose their edge; and on the other gradually acquiring a deep rooted belief that all public men are more or less sad.  In consequence, his political instinct becomes hopelessly slurred, and he grows unable to tell the good representative from the sad.  The worst offence that can be committed against the Republic is the offence of the public man who betrays his trust; but second only to it comes the offence of the man who tries to persuade others that an honest and efficient public man is dishonest or unworthy.  This is a wrong that can be committed in a great many different ways.  Downright foul abuse may be, after all, less dangerous than incessant misstatements, sneers, and those half-truths that are the meanest lies.


For educated men of weak fibre there lies a real danger in that species of literary work which appeals to their cultivated senses because of its scholarly and pleasant tone, but which enjoins as the proper attitude to assume in public life one or mere criticism and negation; which teaches the adoption toward public men and public affairs of that sneering tone which so surely denotes a mean and small mind.  If a man does not have belief and enthusiasm, the chances are small indeed that he will ever do a man's work in the world; and the paper or the college which, by its general course, tends to eradicate this power of belief and enthusiasm, this desire for work, has rendered to the young men under its influence the worst service it could possibly render.  Good can often be done by criticizing sharply and severely the wrong; but excessive indulgence in criticism is never anything but sad, and no amount of criticism can in any way take the place of active and zealous warfare for the right.


Again, there is a certain tendency in college life, a tendency encouraged by some of the very papers referred to, to make educated men shrink from contact with the rough people who do the world's work, and associate only with one another and with those who think as they do.  This is a most dangerous tendency.  It is very agreeable to deceive one's self into the belief that one is performing the whole duty of man by sitting at home in ease, doing nothing wrong, and confining one's participation in politics to conversations and meetings with men who have had the same training and look at things in the same way.  It is always a temptation to do this, because those who do nothing else often speak as if in some way they deserved credit for their attitude, and as if they stood above their brethren who plough the rough fields.  Moreover, many people whose political work is done more or less after this fashion are very noble and very sincere in their aims and aspirations, and are striving for what is best and most decent in public life.


Nevertheless, this is a snare round which it behooves every young man to walk carefully.  Let him beware of associating only with the people of his own caste and of his own little ways of political thought.  Let him learn that he must deal with the mass of men; that he must go out and stand shoulder to shoulder with his friends of every rank, and face to face with his foes of every rank, and must bear himself well in the hurly-burly.  He must not be frightened by the many unpleasant features of the context, and he must not expect o have it all his own way, or to accomplish too much.  He will meet with checks and will make many mistakes; but if he perseveres, he will achieve a measure of success and will do a measure of good such as is never possible to the refined, cultivated, intellectual men who shrink aside from the actual fray.


Yet again, college men must learn to be as practical in politics as they would be in business or in law.  It is surely unnecessary to say that by "practical" I do not mean anything that savors in the least of dishonesty.  On the contrary, a college man is peculiarly bound to keep a high ideal and be true to it; but he must work in practical ways to try to realize this ideal, and must not refuse to do anything because he cannot get everything.  One especially necessary thing is to know the facts by actual experience, and not to take refuge in mere theorizing.  There are always a number of excellent and well meaning men whom we grow to regard with amused impatience because they waste all their energies on some visionary scheme which, even if it were not visionary, would be useless.  When they come to deal with political questions, these men are apt to err from sheer lack of familiarity with the workings of our government.  No man ever really learned from books how to manage a governmental system.  Books are admirable adjuncts, and the statesman who has carefully studied them is far more apt to do good work than if he had not; but if he has never done anything but study books he will not be a statesman at all.  Thus, every young politician should of course read the Federalist.  It is the greatest book of the kind that has ever been written.  Hamilton, Madison, and Jay would have been poorly equipped for writing it if they had not possessed an extensive acquaintance with literature, and in particular if they had not been careful students of political literature; but the great cause of the value of their writings lay in the fact that they knew by actual work and association what practical politics meant.  They had helped to shape the political thought of the country, and to do its legislative and executive work, and so they were in a position to speak understandingly about it.  For similar reasons, Mr. Bryce's American Commonwealth has a value possessed by no other book of the kind, largely because Mr. Bryce is himself an active member of Parliament, a man of good standing and some leadership in his own party, and a practical politician.  In the same way, a life of Washington by Cabot Lodge, a sketch of Lincoln by Carl Schurz, a biography of Pitt by Lord Rosesery, have an added value because of the writers' own work in politics.


It is always a pity to see men fritter away their energies on any pointless scheme; and unfortunately, a good many of our educated people when they come to deal with politics, do just such frittering.  Take, for instance, the queer freak of arguing in favor of establishing what its advocates are pleased to call "responsible government" in our institutions, or in other words of grafting certain features of the English parliamentary system upon our own Presidential and Congressional system.  This agitation was too largely deficient in body to enable it to last, and it has now, I think, died away; but at one time quite a number of our men who spoke of themselves as students of political history were engaged in treating this scheme as something serious.  Few men who had ever taken an active part in politics or who had studied politics in the way that a doctor is expected to study surgery and medicine, so much as gave it a thought; but very intelligent men did, just because they were misdirecting their energies, and were wholly ignorant that they ought to know practically about a problem before they attempted its solution.  The English, or so-called "responsible," theory of parliamentary government is one entirely incompatible with our own governmental institutions.  It could not be put into operation here save by absolutely sweeping away the United States Constitution.  Incidentally, I may say it would be to the last degree undesirable, if it were practicable.  But this is not the point upon which I wish to dwell; the point is that it was wholly impracticable to put it into operation, and that an agitation favoring this kind of government was from its nature unintelligent.  The people who wrote about it wasted their time, whereas they could have spent it to great advantage had they seriously studied our institutions and sought to devise practicable and desirable methods of increasing and centering genuine responsibility - for all thinking men agree that there is an undoubted need for a change in this direction; but of course much of the best work that has been done in the field of political study has seen done by men who were not active politicians, though they were careful and painstaking students of the phenomena of politics.  The sack numbers of our leading magazines afford proof of this.  Certain of the governmental essays by such writers as Mr. Lawrence Lowell and Professor A.B. Hart, and especially such books as that on the Speakers' Powers and Duties, by Miss Follet, have been genuine and valuable contributions to our political thought.  These essays have been studied carefully not only by scholars but by men engaged in practical politics, because they were written with good judgment and keen insight after careful investigation of the facts, and so deserved respectful attention.


It is a misfortune for any people when the paths of the practical and the theoretical politicians diverge so widely that they have no common standing ground.  When the Greek thinkers began to devote their attention to purely visionary politics of the kind found in Plato's Republic, while the Greek practical politicians simply exploited the quarrelsome little commonwealths in their own interests, then the end of Greek liberty was at hand.  No government that cannot command the respectful support of the best thinkers is in an entirely sound condition; but it is well to keep in mind the remark of Frederick the Great, that if he wished to punish a province, he would allow it to be governed by the philosophers.  It is a great misfortune for the country when the practical politician and the doctrinaire have no point in common, but the misfortune is, if anything, greatest for the doctrinaire.  The ideal to be set before the student of politics and the practical politician alike is the ideal of the Federalist.  Each man should realize that he cannot do his best, either in the study of politics or in applied politics unless he has a working knowledge of both branches.  A limited number of people can do good work by the careful study of governmental institutions, but they can do it only if they have themselves a practical knowledge of the workings of these institutions.  A very large number of people, on the other hand, may do excellent work in politics without much theoretic knowledge of the subject; but without this knowledge they cannot rise to the highest rank, while in any rank their capacity to do good work will be immensely increased if they have such knowledge.


There are certain other qualities, about which it is hardly necessary to speak.  If an educated man is not heartily American in instinct and feeling and taste and sympathy, he will amount to nothing in our public life.  Patriotism, love of country, and pride in the flag which symbolizes country may be feelings which the race will at some period outgrow, but at present they are very real and strong, and the man who lacks them is a useless creature, a mere encumbrance to the land.


A man of sound political instincts can no more subscribe to the doctrine of absolute independence of party on the one hand than to that of unquestioning party allegiance on the other.  No man can accomplish much unless he works in an organization with others, and this organization, no matter how temporary, is a party for the time being.  But that man is a dangerous citizen who so far mistakes means for ends as to become servile in his devotion to his party, and afraid to leave it when the party goes wrong.  To defy either independence or party allegiance merely as such is a little absurd.  It depends entirely upon the motive, the purpose, the result.  For the last two years, the Senator who, beyond all his colleagues in the United States Senate, has shown himself independent of party ties is the very man to whom the leading champions of independence in politics most strenuously object.  The truth is, simply, that there are times when it may be the duty of a man to break with his party, and there are other times when it may be his duty to stand by his party, even though, on some points, he thinks that party wrong; he must be prepared to leave it when necessary, and he must not sacrifice his influence by leaving it unless it is necessary.  If we had no party allegiance, our politics would become mere windy anarchy, and, under present conditions, our government could hardly continue at all.  If we had no independence, we should always be running the risk of the most degraded kind of despotism - the despotism of the party boss and the party machine.


It is just the same way about compromises.  Occasionally one hears some well-meaning person say to another, apparently in praise, that he is "never willing to compromise."  It is a mere truism to say that, in politics, there has to be one continual compromise.  Of course now and then questions arise upon which a compromise is inadmissible.  There could be no compromise with secession, and there was none.  There should be no avoidable compromise about any great moral question.  But only a very few great reforms or great measures of any kind can be carried through without concession.  No student of American history needs to be reminded that the constitution itself is a bundle of compromises, and was adopted only because of this fact, and that the same thing is true of the Emancipation Proclamation.


In conclusion, then, the man with a university education is in honor bound to take an active part in our political life, and to do his full duty as a citizen by helping his fellow-citizens to the extent his power in the exercise of the rights of self-government.  He is bound to rank action far above criticism, and to understand that the man deserving of credit is the man who actually does the things, even though imperfectly, and not the man who confines himself to talking about how they ought to be done.  He is bound to have a high ideal and to strive to realize it, and yet he must make up his mind that he will never be able to get the highest good, and that he must devote himself with all his energy to getting the best that he can.  Finally, his work must be disinterested and honest, and it must be given without regard to his own success or failure, and without regard to the effect it has upon his own fortunes; and while he must follow the virtues of uprightness and tolerance and gentleness, he must also show the sterner virtues of courage, resolution, and   hardihood, and the desire to war with merciless effectiveness against the existence of wrong.


The Fraternity's Job by Richard L. Greene, Rochester '25


A Speech before the Eastern Association, New York City, January 17, 1947


It would be in the best fraternal tradition if a gathering of this kind with its highly pleasant social atmosphere and its background of rapidly reviving activity in our several chapters were to be largely devoted to self-congratulation and contemplation of the remarkable record which now covers one hundred and fifteen years of corporate life.  It is a great temptation to speak in this vein, for the subject is a congenial one.  With your permission, I shall resist the temptation precisely because I am so proud of the past of Alpha Delta Phi that I wish it to have a future equally prosperous and creditable.  I am come neither to praise our fraternity nor to bury it.  The one would be superfluous, the other definitely premature.  My title is "The Fraternity's Job," and in talking about it I shall use all the tenses - past, present and future.  We might look at a fundamental or two to begin with.


The first important thing about Alpha Delta Phi, Kappa Alpha, Sigma Nu and the rest of the lineup in Baird's Manual is that they are college fraternities, not societies choosing their membership from those doing the world's work like the Masons, the various antlered animals, or the rotating and gyrating beaters upon gongs at hotel luncheon tables.  Neither are they, except occasionally, connected with graduate or professional schools like the medical or legal societies, which imitate their nomenclature and badges.  They exist within the pattern of life set up by the four year colleges which harbor them, and it is a condition of their existence that they conform to this pattern, which they have done much in the last one hundred years to shape.


The second important thing about them is that they are fraternities, voluntary associations of young men, for the purpose of seeking values impossible to find either in solitude or in large and heterogeneous groups, or, let me add, in the society of the opposite sex.  Devoted as I am to the young women undergraduates of the nation and especially to the three hundred and sixteen under my care, I do not think that any chapter house ought to be open house for them.  They are not organizations for political action or for the promotion of sectarian religion or for preparation for any particular vocation.  They should not be organizations for the display of conspicuous waste, for the certification of social position or for concerted action in raising hell on the campus.


For some people there are no values or pursuits left in life after this rather long list of exclusions.  Those people, if young men, should take care not to join fraternities, and the chapters should take care not to admit them, even if they are great grandsons of one charter member and great grand nephews of another.  They are often extremely valuable citizens; there is much genius among them, but they should not join fraternities any more than I should a bridge club.  I am not sure that they should attack fraternities any more than I should attack bridge clubs, because to me Blackwood will always be a publisher and Vanderbilt an avenue.


What then remains as the proper field for fraternity life?  Every one of us knows from experience; everyone would probably feel the same difficulty that I do in putting it sharply into words which cannot be misunderstood.  This was more easily done in the last century when the phraseology of the classics about friendship was more current and when the romantic period was younger.  In those days we wrote fraternity songs; now we write fraternity reports.  I must try to turn the song-language into report-language, I suppose, in my effort to state the positive values of fraternity life.  They come out something like this:  the enjoyment and stimulus which come from a sense of belonging to a reputable group stronger and more deeply rooted in the parent institution than the individual; experience in self-discipline and the assumption of responsibility for the conduct of an organization's affairs; the working out of personal relations ranging from tolerance to deep friendship within a stable group, from which withdrawal is difficult; and finally, sheer fun, which is much too short a word for a report and which I must therefore change to "unpremeditated and not formally objective-pointed recreational activity."


Now, I maintain that these interests are not irreconcilable with the process of education in the American college, that, on the contrary, they are closely related to the special kind of education which we call liberal and have so much trouble in defining.  They are not the whole of liberal education by any means.  Nor is fraternity life the whole of college.  The attempt to make it so is a sure recipe for failure.  But, if we recognize the four-fold development of intellectual, spiritual, physical and social man, which educators so glibly profess to be seeking, the experiences that I have mentioned are as close to the social education of the twenty-year old as the library to his mental life or the swimming pool to his physical training.


It is an incontrovertible fact that fraternities have supplied the side of liberal education which the colleges themselves once slighted, then, taught by the fraternities, attempted to provide through other means.  The chapter house is the parent of the student union; the literary program with a faculty member present a progenitor of the seminar, older than the first importations from Germany to the graduate schools.  The social fact, first recognized by the fraternities, that one cannot be intimate with a whole college of hundreds, is the basis of newer trends in dormitory construction and college plans and the ubiquitous discussion group.  But that lesson has been taught; most colleges have learned it well.  Teaching is no longer the fraternity's job.


But the fraternities have a job in the post war college, a job with both short-range and long-range aspects.  The first important thing to say about it is that it must be visualized in terms of the job of the colleges themselves.  They face their second apparently impossible assignment within six years.  They met the first one in the scrambled and shock filled days just after Pearl Harbor, and they managed to perform it somehow with a good deal of financial help, administrative help, and occasional hindrance from the government and the armed forces.  They are taking on the second one now in the form of enormously swollen enrollments with inadequate housing, staff and supplies, and not much real relief yet in sight.  They expect to manage this one somehow too, but each institution has figuratively taken a subsidiary motto underneath the Latin on its coat-of-arms.  Beneath Dei sub nomine viget or Veritas or Terras irradient there might well be another heraldic ribbon bearing in plain English the legend:  "No nonsense."  The fraternities would do well to make a similar addition to their blazons, and I should like to see it go up first of all right underneath Manus multae, cor unum.  The importance to the nation of getting the utmost in efficiency out of the existing college facilities demands that chapters give their utmost in cooperation, even when habit, tradition, or intrachapter convenience are interfered with, just as they gave it during the war itself.




"No nonsense" is unquestionably the personal motto of most of the thousands of veterans who are proving how much they are in earnest about education by their tenacity and fine scholastic performance under sometimes appalling conditions of housing and schedule.  Many of them have returned to their fraternity chapters; many others are entering fraternity life for the first time.  It will be strange, as well as disappointing, if they do not leave there, as they are doing upon classroom activities, the impress of their greater maturity.  I should like to think that their influence may have permanent results for the better upon the fraternity pattern.  In fact, I believe that the word "maturity" which has already established itself as the key word in discussions of the student veterans must become the key word in the fraternity's next development.  To be blunt, the fraternity must grow up with the colleges.


How?  Well, it is immature to go to college and not to put studies in first place.  There was a time (my own undergraduate years, for instance) when the good-natured collegiate nitwit could answer that he was wasting only his own time and his dad's money and look at all the fine contacts he was making.  Now every student knows or should know that his being in college at all constitutes, as President Bowman of Johns Hopkins put it, a "social contract."  He knows or should know that behind him there stand others waiting for his place who would not waste the opportunity that is his.  Decent scholarship is no longer something that a house can decide to promote when the alumni get fussy about a positive social duty.  If a fraternity chapter is not serious in 1947 about seeing that its members are encouraged to study and that hindrances to study are reduced to a minimum, it shows itself too much out of step with the world to warrant much consideration of any kind.


Next, any chapters which still cling to an initiation procedure that involves risk of physical injury or that subjects a candidate to public absurdities should stop hemming and hawing about it and wipe it off the docket without waiting for any more conventions to pass any more pious resolutions.  For one thing, the adolescent excesses and bad taste of high school fraternities and sororities should be left without any precedent to plead in the activities of college people.


A positive program of intellectual exercise within the chapter should be maintained, restored, or instituted.  The changed conditions of life and the urgent national need for more active interest by educated people in public affairs would indicate topics from the social studies as the backbone of this program instead of the belles letters of an earlier day.  As some of you know, I advocate removal of the secrecy surrounding the literary program of Alpha Delta Phi and should like to see other fraternities of high standing join us in making known to college authorities and to the public the nature and extent of these activities and in holding occasional open meetings.  The serious side of our chapter life has been concealed from view as if shameful, the gaieties being much better publicized.


These are mostly old ideals made imperative by the "No nonsense" regime which is surely going to take over on American campuses whether fraternity alumni like it or not.  They are the short-range part of the job.  For the longer view I have one point to make which I regard as the most important of all.  In attempting to formulate it I am quite aware of the wide difference in local conditions among our chapters and of the weight of tradition which may oppose it.  But it seems to me that the fraternity system must take a definite psychological step if it is to avoid becoming a museum piece like the highwheel bicycle and the turtle-neck sweater and the cane rush.  This step involves turning away from the idea of exclusiveness, from the emphasis on rivalry with competing organizations to the idea of cooperation with them for the good of the college and society.  It means admitting to the neophyte that the vital difference is not between Alpha Delt and DKE and neutral, but between the sound personality and the unsound.  It means teaching him how to form and keep a group loyalty but still to be able to say with St. Paul, "I am under obligation to both Greek and barbarian."  It means more frequent hospitality to members of other chapters and of no chapter; it means more frequent hospitality to members of other chapters and of no chapter; it means putting some of our charming friends in the sororities or women's colleges in their place now and then if they forget that the pin is "but the guinea's stamp, the man's the gold for a' that."  It means sympathy with movements to extend the benefits of fraternity life to those now on the outside looking in through the organization of new groups whether associated with old and prestige-laden national societies or not.  It means limitation of future fraternity building to standards of attractiveness and comfort and an end in the name of good sense to baronial halls and king-sized mortgages.  It means a minimum of expense for national administration to be passed on to undergraduates and alumni in low chapter dues.  In short, it means de-emphasis of the side of fraternity self-consciousness expressed in the second stanza of "Hail to Thee":


            Although the world knows not the tie that unites us

            And sees but the casket enclosing the gem,

            All honor the goddess whose ties so unite us

            And envy the pleasures forbidden to them.


            We might replace it with more emphasis on two lines of the "Pilgrim Song":


            Pilgrims to manliness,

            Seek ye the truth.


I have always thought that we Alpha Delts rejoined in the most beautiful symbols of any college fraternity.  I know the usual hallowed interpretation of them, I have recited it on many occasions.  May I point out another shade of meaning which they can bear?  The star is a fixed and unchanging sign for an ideal of manhood; the crescent moon is the world's oldest symbol of change.  There are changes for the better coming in the American college after the present feverish years are over.  I believe that Alpha Delta Phi is strong enough, secure enough, and wise enough to adapt itself to them and extend indefinitely an already long career of usefulness, honor, and support for the best rather than the flashiest standards of collegiate life.


The American College Fraternity by Henry Wade Rodgers


The Greek Letter Societies of the American Universities are secret organizations of brotherhoods, who form these brotherhoods for literary and social purposes.  The oldest of these organizations, the Phi Beta Kappa, was established as early as 1776, and it continued the sole society of its kind for fifty years.  It now differs from all other college fraternities and occupies a unique place of its own.  Its members are selected at the close of their under-graduate course, and are chosen solely on grounds of scholarship.  Membership in one fraternity is ordinarily a bar to membership in another, although this is not the case in the Phi Beta Kappa.


The large place these organizations have come to occupy in the American universities can be inferred from the fact that there are now more than 800 "chapters" of these societies in our colleges and that their total membership, including their alumni, is more than 100,000.


In Germany and American students' societies form an important feature of university life.  These organizations influence in no small degree the daily life of their members.  They largely determine the social intercourse of students, give rise to lasting friendships, regulate conduct, shape ideals and aspirations, and influence views and habits.


We have in our American universities nothing that answers to the Corps and Burschenschaften of the German universities.  The Corps are said to be recruited entirely from the wealthy and aristocratic classes, and to attach great importance to the externals of manners and expenditures, and to be characterized by a strong tendency to an aristocratic aloofness from the great mass of the students.


They are the elite of the student body.  When they appear together on formal occasions they carry swords and wear a distinguishing dress.  They are composed in the main of students enrolled under the faculty of law, and in less degree from those enrolled under the faculty of medicine.  The Burschenschaften are said to make less of social distinctions, to be less exclusive and to have a greater number of representatives of the different faculties.


There is no element of secrecy about the Corps of the German universities.  Their statutes of organization and by-laws have to be submitted to the university authorities for approval.  The Corps-Kneipe is a club room rather than a "lodge," and outsiders are often invited to the meetings.  A corps has no "chapters" as our American college societies have.  It has no existence outside its own university.  Its meetings are held twice a week, while the American college society meets once a week.  The Corps students are duelists and each Corps has its Fecht-boden or fencing room, where its members meet every day for practice among themselves.


There also exist in the German universities the Verbindungen, which are mere social clubs.  These also are independent organizations having no "chapters."  Their fellowship is less close and exclusive than that of the Corps or of the Burschenschaften.


In the English and Scotch universities there seems to be nothing which at all resembles the college fraternities of the United States.  Their societies are not secret and answer to the open literary societies of the American universities.


In the college fraternities of the United States membership is usually indicated by gold badges, which contain the name and some of the symbols of the fraternity.  Sometimes they are set in diamonds and precious stones, and are quite costly.  In the German universities the societies are distinguished by "color-wearing."  They wear distinctive caps of a particular color, or some color emblem attached to their dress.


In the United States it has become quite the practice for the students of a particular fraternity to reside together during their college course in their chapter house.  A few years ago there were said to be seventy such houses in the United States which were owned by the chapters, and three times as many which were rented.  There are decided advantages in this practice, as well as some dangers that need to be guarded against.  The members of a chapter thus living together learn day by day what has been called the great art of governing themselves.  In Germany it is said that there are no laws in the world which are more scrupulously obeyed and more strictly upheld than the laws which the students' societies impose upon themselves.  As a rule the fraternity houses in the United States are well conducted.  Severe rules are established, which prohibit students from having intoxicating liquors inside these houses, and which forbid any intimate relations with their society, and are keen observers of the manner in which the under-graduates deport themselves.


Years ago, when the people were stirred to a high state of excitement against secret societies, chiefly due to their indignation with Masonry, some of the universities undertook to suppress college fraternities.  The attempt led to much bad feeling and was finally abandoned.  As early as 1789, however eight years after Phi Beta Kappa was established at Harvard, and long before the anti-masonic agitation, a committee of the Overseers reported to the board "that there is an institution in the university with the nature of which the government is not acquainted, which tends to make a discrimination among the students," and submitted the propriety of inquiring into its nature and design.  The chairman of that committee was the John Hancock whose signature to the Declaration of Independence has made him immortal!  In 1831 the Harvard Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was induced, "after a long and angry discussion," participated in by Judge Story and John Quincy Adams, to throw open the secrets of that organization to the world.  This society is said to constitute a kind of aristocracy of learning in a democratic country.  Its name in full is, translated, Philosophy, the Guide of Life.  A distinguished Harvard professor has said that this "is the only society whose right to examine the condition of our scholarship is unquestioned."  All other Greek Letter societies in our colleges are secret organizations, with the exception of the Delta Upsilon, which is non-secret.


Various judgments have been pronounced upon the value of college fraternities.  They have been denounced by not a few on the ground that they lead to a neglect of study and to a waste of time; that they involve considerable expense and develop habits of extravagant expenditure; that they inculcate false social standards and tend to a supercilious contempt of non-fraternity men; that they lead to dissipation and vice.  On the other hand, we are told that these organizations are helpful and wholesome; that they have high ideals and hold in check evil tendencies; that the esprit de corps by which they are characterized exerts an excellent influence; that they tend to develop a pride of scholarship by requiring their members to complete their studies creditably, if for no other motive, then, for the sake of the society's reputation and standing; that they are organized for the intellectual and moral and social improvement of their members.


The truth of the matter is that societies differ just as individuals differ.  There are college fraternities whose influence is not altogether wholesome, and from which a student had better keep aloof.  There are also fraternities which are in a high degree in every way helpful, and to which it is an honor for any man to belong.  If this were not the case, it would be quite impossible to understand the respect and affection with which mature men of the highest type, men like George William Curtis and Joseph H. Choate, have been wont to speak of their college fraternity.  It would be still less possible to comprehend why such men should consent to have their sons initiated into the same society if its influences made for evil and not good.  Generalizations are always dangerous.  We are not to condemn college societies because some of them may be not altogether what they should be.  For the same reason we should not commend them without reservation because some of them may be most wholesome and helpful. It is as necessary to discriminate between societies as it is between individuals.  A student proposing to enter a college fraternity should study its membership and determine whether the men who compose it are the manner of men he wants for friends.  This much, however, should in all fairness be said:  No college fraternity can be wholly bad and long exist in any reputable university.  It is the duty of college authorities to weed out bad men.  Men who abandon themselves to dissipation and to a neglect of work, when they are found out, as sooner or later they are pretty sure to be, are set adrift.  And a society composed of men inclined to dissipation would be under the necessity of reforming itself before it became very bad, or it would be liable to be suppressed by action of the proper authorities.


The fact that the universities permit these organizations to exist affords strong presumption that they are favorably regarded, and that as a class their influence is for good rather than evil.  Princeton is the only institution of any particular prominence in the country in which fraternities are prohibited, and there is no reason to believe that the morale of the student body is any higher there than in the institutions in which a contrary policy is pursued.  Indeed it would not be difficult to show by the utterances of numerous college presidents that these organizations on the whole simplify college government and are an aid to administrative officers in the influences which they bring to bear in favor of correct living.


The following table gives the Men's General Fraternities established between 1825 and 1873 inclusive, showing the institutions in which they were first established and the date of organization:


Kappa Alpha  Union College 1825
Sigma Phi Union College 1827
Delta Phi Union College 1827
Alpha Delta Phi Hamilton College 1832
Psi Upsilon Union College 1833
Delta Upsilon Williams 1834
Beta Theta Pi Miami University 1839
Chi Psi Union College 1841
Delta Kappa Epsilon Yale 1844
Zeta Psi New York University 1846
Delta Psi Columbia 1847
Theta Delta Chi Union College 1847
Phi Gamma Delta Jefferson College 1848
Phi Delta Theta Miami University 1848
Phi Kappa Sigma University of Pennsylvania 1850
Phi Kappa Psi Jefferson College 1852
Chi Phi Princeton 1854
Sigma Chi Miami University 1855
Sigma Alpha Epsilon University of Alabama 1856
Delta Tau Delta Bethany College 1860
Alpha Tau Omega Virginia Military Institute 1865
Kappa Alpha (Southern) Washington and Lee 1865
Kappa Sigma University of Virginia 1867
Pi Kappa Alpha University of Virginia 1868
Sigma Nu Virginia Military Institute 1869
Phi Sigma Kappa Massachusetts Agr'l College 1873


These organizations pride themselves on a distinguished membership.  They number among their adherents many men who have won eminence in statesmanship, diplomacy, jurisprudence, letters, the arts, and in all the various walks of life.  There are found in the faculties of the universities their strong supporters, men whose personal experience and observation has led them to the conclusion that these societies are worthy of a place in our institutions for the higher learning.  But every effort should be made to keep these organizations from degenerating into mere social clubs, and no person should be admitted into their membership unless he is possessed of those intellectual, moral and social qualities which render intimate association with him desirable and helpful.  Fraternity men are sometimes accused of entertaining a weak, narrow and unworthy prejudice which occasionally leads them to look down upon or to depreciate non-fraternity or "neutral" men.  It may be that such a spirit now and then appears.  That it is discreditable and unworthy is evident.  But that it is largely entertained is not believed.  That it should be frowned upon by all admits of no doubt.


The Future of Fraternity


In the fraternity world, as in so many other fields, investigation and theorizing are wont to proceed as if the subject matter had reached a condition of static equilibrium.  The introduction of dynamic elements and forces naturally upsets the rose-colored hopes or hastily formulated theories based on this lack of analysis and abstraction of essentials.  The only instance necessary to quote in illustration of this tendency is the millennium of pan-Hellenism, the approach of which has been so incessantly hailed, as near at hand, by writers on fraternity subjects.  Yet this promising little ignus fatuus, with all its glitter of union and glare of strength, still eludes its pursuers, who fail to recognize that the essential life idea of fraternity rests in its division into competing camps of kindred spirits.  I must not be misinterpreted into unreasoning hostility to pan-Hellenism, though its advocates have still to prove that its success would not place fraternity on an identical basis with other university and college literary societies, and thus destroy its esoteric character.  My position is not, I repeat, one of hostility to pan-Hellenism, in the abstract, for if that movement were properly understood and intelligently worked out it would lead to an elevation of the plane of competition, the sorest need now felt by fraternity, and would certainly tend to liberalize and enlighten the purposes of Hellenism itself and eventually stimulate the growing favor which it meets in the world at large; a favor which indubitable usefulness and healthfulness of influence are slowly gaining for the fraternity principle.  This much, however, by way of illustration of the fact that scanty analysis and hope-begotten synthesis characterize much discussion of fraternity topics.  Hence, in full knowledge of the usual futility of the application of mere logic to fraternity, I venture to call attention to some attempts at prophetic utterance on the "Future of Fraternity," for I conceive that either growth or decay can safely by predicted.  Static equilibrium, as I have called it, can only exist under unchanging conditions.  Sameness, stationaryness even, is a characteristic of decay, and when the civilization of China is spoken of as stationary, it is meant that the rest of the world has outstripped her, which is to all intents and purposes positive decline, certainly relative decadence.  Without, then, in any way reflecting on the present usefulness of fraternity as an institution, we may safely predict for it, as of every other conceivable institution of man, that in the future it must be either more or less than it has been in the past.  The vicariousness of causes, the unceasing change of conditions, the ever increasing accumulation of knowledge, with the sweeping away of superstitution, if not of sentiment, are constantly affecting something, altering all things.  What will such causes as can now be described do with fraternity?


The function of the prophet has always been two-fold.  He is first to point out the wrong-doings or causes of what is to come and then he proceeds to pronounce the woe or weal that shall betide the persons addressed.  In obedience to classic models I shall look at causes antecedent to effects.


At present fraternity is eminently a college institution and is intimately concerned with the form taken by college instruction and college government.  Here we seem to stand on the eve of a revolution.  The scholastic trivium and quadrivium are rapidly being replaced by vast disparate systems of knowledge.  Hitherto unknown forces are giving rise to new sciences.  Aristotle no longer holds the key to universal learning, and in the face of such attempts as Herbert Spencer's "Synthetic Philosophy" it is safe to say that the world has seen its last of the "Enclopoedists."  Specialization has supplanted breadth; the cry is no longer for liberality of culture, but grows more and more exacting in its demand for the concentration of the entire energies of each man on a single subject, or even branch of a subject.  The choice of a vocation in life begins to be made earlier and the youth no longer attains general culture as a determinant of capability to choose a future course, but in very tender years, it may be wisely or unwisely, definitely decides the burning question, and henceforth with an enthusiasm almost approaching mono-idealism, narrows down the field of his attainments and intensifies his concentration on special subjects.  Schools, colleges and universities are growing up, in which classics are relegated to oblivion in the interest of science, or pursued, in an antagonizing spirit, to the neglect of the exact sciences and history.  What does it all mean?  Is not the full, ripe, many-sided man of the past, and even of our own day, waning away into the pedantic or over specialized specialist?  Or is not knowledge, divorced from refinement, taking up its abode in the ascetic habitations of scientific anchorites - intellectual abnormalities?


What becomes of the human sympathies in all this concentration and specialization?  Are they to be specialized, too, and cultivated for the rest of society by a small increment of the social laborers, set apart for the purpose, in either the ministerial or professedly philanthropic function?  No, I have purposely overdrawn the possible outcome of this tendency, for as yet there is but a tendency, and the sense of the fitness of things, common to mankind, will not allow it to go too far.  Later I shall show that society has already inaugurated a counter-veiling movement.  But this deep lesson for the fraternity becomes apparent.  In it the association must become increasingly close, the contact of specialties must be made to take place on neutral ground, selfishness must be displaced by unselfishness and large generality of sympathies must teach the beauty and the possibility of self-sacrificing friendship.  This, fraternity principle, is your function.


This change in the character of college instruction implies a corresponding change in college life.  The fine old campus, with all its recollections, the dormitories necessitating close living together, have in large part changed.  These things are passing away.  Life at Johns Hopkins, at Chicago, and in an increasing degree everywhere is assuming a different character.  The students are rooming scattered over large cities at varying distances from the scene of their work.  The truly American "hurry" and the necessities of bread and butter scholarship are obscuring the national and inherent love of sports, and the college juvenile of today threatens to rival the primitive professor in his steady application to business and his neglect of the cultivation of associations for the development of the social side of his disposition.  Everybody knows how sadly impressive is the precocity of the rising generation.  Santa Claus, that beneficent and kindly genius of our youth, begins to disappear in the analyzing reason or facetious skepticism of youngsters not yet in knickerbockers.  Schopenhauer's proposition, that youth is the proper time for the cultivation of memory and sentiment, which must be neglected when reason comes in for its sway, has more than two grains of truth in two bushels of chaff.  We have succeeded in banishing superstition, and now the exacting canons of scientific truth threaten the banishment of human sympathy as a higher order of the same category.  Hastily to review, I have shown that in college courses, early specialization threatens liberality of culture, that the tendency in large colleges of the new school is toward individual selfishness of pursuit and loss of touch with the world at large, and finally that the bond of human sympathy and union sentiment is in conflict, apparent or real, with the requirements of scientific attainments.  From these premises I conclude that fraternity has a mission to perform, pro bono pubico and in the interest of the humanity of society.




Two things seem to be characteristic of the origins of our present Greek Letter system: it springs from that pattern in society which tends to lead men of similar tastes to band together around a common goal or objective, and it spreads by that process of division wherein one segment of the body separates itself from the parent organization for one reason or another to produce another body similar to the original in many, if not all, respects.  Thus today we have a group of societies, each using a series of more or less euphonious Greek letters for a name, each letter representing words of a motto known only to members, each for the most part national organizations with chapters or branches in educational institutions throughout the country with each chapter having its own name (such as another Greek letter chosen to represent the order of the establishment of the chapter) or the name of the school at which the chapter is located (as for example Northwestern Chapter), and all organized around noble principles of brotherhood, scholarship, and citizenship.  "Bravery, honesty, rectitude, and fidelity in all things are taught by precept and example." (Musgrave, Wayne M., College Fraternities)


Wayne Musgrave, in this book College Fraternities, refers to the Flat Hat Club of William and Mary as "the first American College Fraternity of where there is record."  It appeared in 1750, some "seventy-five years before it was needed" in Mr. Musgrave's opinion since men still belonged to their closely-knit family groups, and continued "until after 1772" - the date of its disappearance being difficult to place.  The Flat Hat Club was "secret, literary, and social in character.  It held regular meetings.  It had a grip and a badge."  Thomas Jefferson wrote to John D. Taylor of Maryland that he "was a member and that out of it the Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776 might have arisen."  This observation may not be altogether valid, but Mr. Musgrave states that "it is known (that the name of Phi Beta Kappa) was developed from that of a rival of the Flat Hat group."


William R. Baird, in his Manual of American College Fraternities, lists Phi Beta Kappa as "the first American society bearing a Greek-letter name".  It was founded at William and Mary on December 5, 1776.  Originally, its character was typical of the literary societies of the day.  It used the Greek alphabet in naming its "branches" or chapters.  It had a grip, a ritual and a program for expansion.  But around 1831, having been "denounced at Dartmouth" and having its secrets published at Harvard and Yale, "the ceremonials became simply a formal welcome to the incoming initiates, sometimes held as part of the graduating exercises at commencement, sometimes immediately following the announcements of scholastic standings in classical schools and departments."  Today it is singularly an honorary organization to which women are admitted as freely as men.  The motto, "Philosophy, the Guide (or Helmsman) of life" has remained unchanged throughout the Fraternity's existence.


In the interval between 1776 and 1821, literary societies grew in importance.  These societies generally provided training and drill in composition and oratory, with debates and the reading and discussion of papers as the principal exercises.  Some of these societies were secret; some were not.  Usually there would be two societies in each college, and the student body would be divided rather equally between them.  Two such societies, the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian, existed at Hamilton when Samuel Eells founded Alpha Delta Phi there in 1832.  For the most part, these societies were too large for the cultivation of close friendships.


Also, in this interval, changes were taking place in the colleges whereby the intimate social exchange among students so characteristic of early Latin schools and seminaries no longer applied.  Fraternities evolved primarily to meet this need, and in the process, according to Musgrave, many of the "advantages of the literary societies were absorbed."


In the autumn of 1825 at Union College in Schenectady, John Hunter and other members of the class of '26 founded Kappa Alpha, patterned after Phi Beta Kappa, which had been established at Union in 1817.  Although according to Mr. Baird there was considerable opposition to Kappa Alpha, it was "paid the compliment of imitation" by the foundation in the same college of Sigma Phi, March 4, 1827, and of Delta Phi on November 18, 1827.  Sigma Phi placed its Beta Chapter of New York at Hamilton in 1831, and this probably suggested to Samuel Eells some of the details in the development of his plan, for Alpha Delta Phi was established at Hamilton during the nest year and at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1835.


It was with the founding of the three fraternities at Union - Kappa Alpha, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi - that the Union Triad had its birth.  Of this, Mr. Baird says, "imitation of them or opposition to them will account for the establishment of nearly all of the general fraternities."  It is interesting to notice the truth of this statement from the records that are available.  Alfred H. Upham draws a very similar line in his history of Old Miami.  Speaking of the events surrounding the founding by John Knox of Beta Theta Pi, President Upham says:

"To the unprejudiced observer there is one feature about Knox' plan, novel enough in his day, that gets to be painfully familiar as time goes on.  The new brotherhood (Beta Theta Pi) was to have all the good qualities of Alpha Delta Phi and none of its bad ones.  In the same way, nine years after, Phi Delta Theta was to have all the virtues of the virtues of the Alphas and Betas together, and of course none of their obvious defects.  Likewise D.K.E., breaking away from the Phi Delts, was to have all the excellence of the parent chapter, etc.  Four years later, Sigma Chi, sprung from the Dekes, was again to partake only of the good and leave the bad to soothe the bereaved survivors.  The logic of this process seems complimentary enough to Sigma Chi, but appears to put the Alphas in a rather unpleasant light.  Then, too, one wonders where that constant remainder of bad keeps coming from."


There is considerable significance in this activity at Miami University for John Knox, antagonistic as he was to secret societies like Alpha Delta Phi, who did go on in 1839 to organize Beta Theta Pi, the first fraternity founded in what was then western America.  Thereafter, in 1842 and 1855 respectively, Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi were founded, producing the Miami Triad - Beta Theta Pi, Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi - which is as well known throughout the country as the earlier Union Triad.


Our own Fraternity was rapidly extended, the first chapters being established either by the founders of the parent chapter or by those closely associated with them.  It was the pioneer fraternity in 12 colleges and the second or third in 10 others.


The establishment in 1893 of the Toronto Chapter was an important event in the history of our Fraternity since it marked its entrance into the International field.  This move has been since followed by the establishment of chapters at McGill University, Montreal, in 1897, and at the University of British Columbia in 1926.


Here then are the beginnings of the college fraternity system, and a few details of our own Fraternity related to them.  There are dates and statistics in profusion, and there are claims and legends equally profuse.  Unfortunately, much of the fact of these beginnings has been lost or distorted, as has much of the original impetus.  Secrecy for its own romantic sake so stifled the historical sense of the fraternity founders that the details of causes, activities and effects have been almost certainly buried alive under a later avalanche of self-justification, reminiscence, forgetfulness, invention and down-right bold-faced drum-beating.  Times change, and with times, points of focus and standards of judgment.  That with which we are left, though, has in it still all that was innately worthy in the primary aim.  Love of God, of country, and of fellow man were never more apropos than in this present time, and never more heroic in their challenge.


Alpha Delta Phi was the first Greek letter Fraternity on the following campuses:

 1. Miami University

 2. New York University

 3. Columbia University

 4. Yale University

 5. Amherst College

 6. Brown University

 7. Harvard University

 8. Hobart College

 9. Western Reserve University

10. Bowdoin College

11. University of Rochester

12. College of City of New York


Alpha Delta Phi was the second Greek letter Fraternity on the following campuses:

1. Hamilton College

2. University of Alabama

3. McGill University


Alpha Delta Phi was the third Greek letter Fraternity on the following campuses:

1. Dartmouth College

2. University of Michigan

3. Cumberland University

4. Kenyon College

5. Trinity College

6. University of Toronto

7. University of British Columbia




by John M. Young CORNELL 1928


In the early days of our Fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi sought students of decided literary tastes.  As a result it soon acquired a distinctive literary tradition, which, in a great measure, it has retained.


It is unfortunate that the word LITERARY is so often interpreted in a narrow, restricted sense.  To many, it seems to call up only the shades of Emerson, Charles Lamb, Walter Pater and other writers whose works are not today among the best sellers.  To many, the work  LITERARY connotes a tiresome, boring pedantism - alien to the tempo of twentieth-century living.


Actually, the word means more than this.  It was never intended to connote narrowness or restrictions by Samuel Eells, who made this statement regarding the founding of Alpha Delta Phi,  "In the first place, the new association must differ from others in all points necessary to their exclusion of that jealousy and angry competition which I have always felt to be the bane of college life.  In the second place, it must be built on a more comprehensive scale than other societies in regard to its intellectual proportions, providing for every variety of taste and talent and embracing every department of literature and science.  In the third place, it must be national and universal in all its adaptations, so as not merely to cultivate a taste for literature or furnish the mind with knowledge; but with a true philosophical spirit looking to the ENTIRE man so as to develop his whole being - moral, social, and intellectual."


If a word, such as Creative - or a combination of words as, Intellectual Advancement and Creative Expression, would better describe the field of human endeavor herein embraced, one would gladly recommend their adoption or inclusion.  However, there word LITERARY, freed from its restricting connotations, adequately describes the intellectually stimulating and broadening force envisioned by our founders.  This is particularly true today in those Chapters whose literary programs are honestly regarded as a means of exchanging ideas, of engendering original, logical thinking and of producing creative writing.


Today all Chapters seem well aware of our heritage.  Most appear willing to carry on and maintain the tradition though the degree to which these desires are put into practice varies from complete passive inactivity in some chapters to programs which are a delight and inspiration in others.  The degree to which a chapter carries out a literary programme is generally in direct proportion to how much that chapter thinks of the literary tradition.  In other words, a Chapter which thinks highly of the fraternity's heritage and original raison d'etre usually has a good literary programme and vice versa.


The purposes of the literary tradition, the benefits and results to be expected from it are a heightening and a quickening of interest and enthusiasm in the arts and sciences, in literature and in all fields of

creative endeavor.  If, through the members, attention to the many opportunities offered by the literary program, they may learn to think more logically, clearly, creatively, if they may learn to write more interestingly and to speak more convincingly whether in conversation or before groups, if they may increase their ability to judge as individuals and to express themselves as individuals rather than parroting the conventional catch-phrases always prevalent on any current topic, if they may be aided in developing inquiring minds, in broadening their own, then our founders aim of "...looking to the ENTIRE man so as to develop his whole being - moral, social and intellectual" may be approached.


Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution of Alpha Delta Phi reads as follows:


"The literary plan of the Fraternity shall embrace the various departments of the arts and sciences.  And, in order that, by the due concentration of culture, he may be able to perform reasonable service of scholarship in the world, each Brother shall be expected to choose in which of these departments his work will most avail and, thereafter, in his literary and personal offices, to inform, to quicken, and to broaden the life of his associates in connection with the department chosen."


Today about half of the Chapters are maintaining this tradition nobly, and to them it is a strong and vigorous part of their college life.  To the other half of the Chapters - and to those of you who are preparing for active membership in the Fraternity - we urge a thorough soul-searching and an open-minded examination of the problem.


The argument that "We are scientists, engineers and therefore have no interest in literary matters" does not represent a valid, nor even a mature excuse for lack of interest.  It is the rankest kind of self-delusion, a take-out from weakness, a parrot phrase, which betrays no true knowledge of the facts or of the realities of life after graduation.  The very fact of a group's purely scientific curriculum points up the group's need for extracurricular interests in other fields to fulfill the conception of well-rounded men.  There is no station in life - engineer, scientist, builder, chemist - where an adequate acquaintance with literature, the ability to think logically and creatively and the ability to express one's self originally and clearly are not very great advantages.  And there is no station in life where the inability to do these things does not militate against a man in his career and in his social life.


It is true that the scientific student is at a disadvantage in literary competition against an arts student.  Yet this should not be an excuse for no activity or interest whatever.  How many first-place winners, how many champions are crowned in any competition?  And oftentimes those who win no prizes will have gained more experience, more individual benefits from their program than the man who is publicly acclaimed the winner.


There are many lucrative fields of creative writing and endeavor today which are and will always be in need of "new, informed" and able talent.  Advertising, radio, television - the magazines, the newspapers and book publishing - the stage, the movies - the field for the productive use of creative talent has multiplied a hundred-fold since 1832.  None of these modern media for the dissemination of knowledge and entertainment are considered as stuffy or long-haired by the public.  They are among the most influential and dynamic forces of our civilization.  Why then should acquiring the background necessary to the use and understanding of these forces be thought of as a waste of time or as the pursuit of scholars only, not worth the interest of vigorous red-blooded men?  What sort of narrow nonsense is it which says, "I am studying chemistry today - I will be a chemist tomorrow - I will always be a chemist - I have no interest in anything but chemistry - I will be happy to die a chemist, and nothing more?"  Quite apart from editors, writers, critics or publishers - the best chemists, the best builders, the best engineers - the best doctors or lawyers - the top men - the top executives in any field - those who command the highest salaries and wield the greatest power - are those men who read for themselves, talk for themselves, write and think for themselves - and who have learned through their studies in varied fields how to bring a broad perspective and philosophical, realistic understanding to the many problems which confront them.


It is our belief that the values inherent in the conception of this Fraternity's literary programs - the values which can and do accrue to all participating members - are of incalculable benefit in whatever walk of life is chosen, whatever profession is entered after graduation and along whatever paths are followed in the years ahead.


Another argument against the literary program has cropped up frequently enough to deserve mention.  It is the argument that the college curricula and the extra-curricular activities so necessary to a good and full college life demand so much time nowadays that no time is left over for anything else.  We agree that no intrusive element should be allowed to detract from the time necessary for study and that good grades must be the first aim of the undergraduate.  We also agree that athletic or other campus activities are necessary to the man who will get the greatest benefits out of his college years.  It does not seem to us that any fraternity activity should be allowed to encroach upon these two most vital aims.  But isn't it equally true - in college as in business - that the most successful man is the one who always seems to find time for anything worth his attention?  And isn't it human nature to be able to find time to do the things we want to do, and to be "too busy" to do what we would rather put off till tomorrow or next week or next month or next year?


Alpha Delta Phi International cannot demand interest in literary activities where none exists or is dormant, nor can we arouse desire by fiat or order.  Such desire can spring only from the hearts, the minds and the wills of the members of the active Chapter themselves.  It can flower and prosper only if nurtured by the continuing interest and genuine enthusiasm.  The final answer rests with the present and future active members of this Fraternity.


Each year Alpha Delta Phi International conducts a literary competition.  The categories include fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and photography.   Winners are announced at the Annual Convention.  Cash prizes are awarded in each of the categories and $1000 award is made for an outstanding entry.


 Information concerning the Literary Competition may be obtained from:


            E. Laird Mortimer III

            Alpha Delta Phi - Literary Committee

            P.O. Box 10344

            Elmwood, CT  06110

            PHONE (203)561-1543



 January 1832                  Fraternity founded by Samuel Eells

 July 3, 1833                    Skeleton Badge adopted

 July 27-28, 1836              First Convention, Utica, New York

 December 7, 1897            Seward Scholarship Fund established

 September 1, 1911           Office of Traveling Secretary Established

 February 23, 1912            Standard Slab Badge Adopted

 November 13, 1928          Alpha Delta Phi Trademarked by the Executive Council

 April 5, 1932                   Annual Literary Competition established

 April 5, 1939                   Initial presentation of Samuel Eells Award

 July 1, 1959                    Office of Executive Secretary established

 April 30, 1960                  First Regional Conference

 August 16, 1961               Alpha Delta Phi Foundation, Inc. founded

 September 9, 1961            First presentation of Executive Council Award

 April 7, 1964                    First endorsement of a colony

 September 12, 1964          Initial presentation of Alpha Delta Phi Award

 April 19-21, 1968             Constitutional Convention at Cleveland, Ohio

 December, 1969               Fraternity headquarters moved to Pleasantville, N.Y.

 December, 1974               Fraternity headquarters moved to Baltimore, Maryland

 December, 1974               Fraternity Archives established at the Hamilton College Library

 December, 1976               Fraternity headquarters moved to Evanston, Illinois

 August, 1982                  Initial presentation of Sword and Spear Award




                                    An old man, going a lone highway,

                                    Came at the evening, cold and gray,

                                    To a chasm, vast, deep, and wide,

                                    Through which was flowing a sullen tide.

                                    The old man crossed in the twilight dim;

                                    The sullen stream had no fears for him;

                                    But he turned, when safe on the other side,

                                    And built a bridge, to span the tide.

                                    'Ole man', said a fellow pilgrim near,

                                    'You are wasting strength with building here;

                                    You never again must pass this way;

                                    Why build you the bridge at eventide.

                                    The builder lifted his grey old head;

                                    'Good friend, in the path I have come,' he said,

                                    'There followeth after me today

                                    A youth, whose feet must pass this way,

                                    This chasm, that has been naught for me,

                                    To that fair haired youth may a pitfall be,

                                    He, too, must cross in the twilight dim;

                                    Good friend, I am building this bridge for him.'


 Membership in Alpha Delta Phi is a lifelong experience.  As one of the newest members of your chapter, you are no doubt asking yourself, "How can I possibly relate to the role of an alumnus when I am not even an initiate member?"  The answer is that you can, by putting into perspective the opportunities that will be available to you as you move through the different stages of pledge, active, and alumnus.


Let's use the following analogy to illustrate the importance of each stage.  Stop for a moment and think of a football stadium.  There are over 31 entrances through which you may enter, each representing a chapter.  After you enter the stadium, your first opportunity is that of freshman player (pledge).  As a pledge you will participate more often in practice sessions than in the game.  But you will always look forward to the day you will become a member of the first team.


The more experienced players (active members) are the regular squad.  The coaches are the chapter officers and chapter advisors.  They help coordinate the play of the team and the opportunities that Alpha Delta Phi presents to each member.


Graduation is a new opportunity, as the active player becomes a spectator (alumnus).  Hopefully, he will continue to have an interest in the players and the success of the team.  He has had his opportunity to play and now takes the role of supporter and armchair quarterback.  As such, his basic responsibility is to see that the game continues for others to play.


If you take this analogy and relate it to your chapter, and magnify it by all the active chapters across North America, you will see what Alpha Delta Phi represents.  You can better appreciate the importance of the pledge, the undergraduate member, and the alumnus.  Without all three groups, the game could not go on.


We hope that through this analogy, you will understand the interdependence of all of the members of Alpha Delta Phi.  Some times, you will have to give, and other times you can expect to receive.  The more give and take there is in your chapter and with your alumni, the more you gain in experience and knowledge, and you will gradually want and be able to share with others what you have learned.


Now let's try to apply this analogy to you and your chapter.  What do you feel are the responsibilities of an alumnus to you and your chapter?  It would be appropriate for you to write down what you feel these responsibilities are.  After you have made up your own mind, you should share your notes on the responsibilities of an alumnus with your pledge brothers.  Do you agree?


How you and your pledge brothers see the role of an alumnus will probably greatly influence the type of active member you will be during your remaining days as an undergraduate.  That perception will also be a tremendous influence on your role as an alumnus.


An alumnus has two responsibilities: First, he must see to it that the opportunity he was given as an undergraduate member continues for others to experience.  An alumnus can meet this responsibility in many ways.  Probably the most common ways are through financial assistance and advisory assistance, both of which are extremely important to your chapter.  Second, an alumnus must see to it that the traditions of the Fraternity are made available to his chapter without imposing his personal beliefs on the chapter.  Each alumnus was given an opportunity when he was an undergraduate to set the chapter policy according to his priorities and standards.  An alumnus should now be willing to turn over this opportunity to his successors.  This succession of leadership is like the succession of leadership within the chapter itself.  Each chapter officer has the responsibility at the end of his term in office to stand back and let the new chapter officer do the job the way he sees it.


To summarize, an alumnus has the responsibility to see that the opportunities he had at his chapter continue.  But he must avoid becoming too deeply involved in the day-to-day operation of his chapter.  He can give advice and step in if disaster is close, but he must remember that if he doesn't let the undergraduates make their own decisions he is defeating one of the primary purposes of our Fraternity.  How do your answers to the above question compare to these ideas?


Now, turn the question around and ask yourself what responsibility you have as an undergraduate member to the alumni of your chapter and the alumni of other chapters?  Follow the same procedure.  Answer that specific question yourself, and then talk with your pledge brothers in a group to determine what is the general opinion about your responsibilities to an alumnus.


An undergraduate member is responsible for communicating with an alumnus in an open and honest manner.  Each undergraduate has a definite responsibility to be courteous to an alumnus during his visit.  Such courtesy might involve the virtue of good listening.  Sometimes talk about the "good old days" may not interest you, but you must remember that this happens naturally as the alumnus walks into the chapter house that holds many memories for him.  It may even remind him of Brothers who are no longer living.  If you are understanding, your attention will be rewarded.  You will win the friendship of an older Brother and that friendship may be of great value to you.  We hope that you will treat each alumnus as a Brother, who is, in part, responsible for the opportunities that you are experiencing and for opportunities you may receive in the future.  That alumnus will be encouraged to meet his responsibilities if you meet yours.


Don't feel that it is too early to talk about the responsibilities of an alumnus.  What you as a future alumnus do to meet these responsibilities is totally up to you.  Those chapters that develop pledges who will become good alumni who are ready to accept their future responsibilities, will be perpetuating their own strengths.  There is no better time and no better class to begin such a procedure as yours.  Your class in your chapter should openly accept the responsibilities and opportunities that lay before you.


                                    "He too, must cross in the twilight dim;

                                    Good friend, I am building the bridge for him."




            Α                                      Ι                                 Ρ

           ALPHA                                 IOTA                            RHO

         (al fah)                             (eye o tah)                        (roe)


             Β                                      Κ                                 Σ

           BETA                                 KAPPA                          SIGMA

         (bay tah)                             (cap ah)                        (sig mah)


             Γ                                       Λ                                 Τ

         GAMMA                                LAMDA                           TAU

         (gam ah)                            (lamb dah)                        (taw)


             Δ                                      Μ                                 Υ

          DELTA                                  MU                            UPSILON

         (del tah)                               (mew)                        (oop si lon)


             Ε                                       Ν                                 Φ

        EPSILON                                  NU                                PHI

        (ep si lon)                               (new)                             (fie)


             Ζ                                        Ξ                                 Χ

           ZETA                                     XI                                CHI

         (zay tah)                               (zEYE)                           (kEYE)


             Η                                        Ο                                 Ψ

           ETA                                   OMICRON                          PSI

         (ay tah)                              (ohm e cron)                       (sigh)


             Θ                                        Π                                  Ω

          THETA                                     PI                               OMEGA

        (they tah)                                  (pie)                          (o may gah)




The word "SYMBOLS" is used to denote the Star and Crescent, Sword, Spear, and Monument.  The word "BADGE" is used to denote the fraternity pin worn by all brothers, and the word "CREST" is used to denote the coat of arms adopted by the 117th Convention.


The Badge


The Badge is an oblong slab with rounded corners, displaying on a shield of black enamel a white Crescent bearing the letters Alpha Delta Phi.  Above the Crescent is a green Star with a gold center, and below is the date 1832 in gold.  On the back is engraved a Monument with crossed Sword and Spear.  In addition, the members initials and surname, chapter, and year of graduation appear on the back of the badge.


The Badge is only to be worn under cover and only on such occasions when coats and ties are worn.  The Badge is properly worn over the heart with the horns of the Crescent pointing over the right shoulder.  It shall not be worn on T shirts, or casual clothes.  Rules regarding the design, use, and or replication of the Badge may only be specified by the Fraternity in Convention.


The origin of the Badge and its Symbols is explained by Samuel Eells our founder:

"We also reported a number of devices for a badge but none seemed to give entire satisfaction and we were instructed to report again.  In the second report, I submitted several models, among which was the Star and Crescent.  They were to be made of fine gold.  On the front of the Star were to be the letters Alpha Delta Phi and on the reverse a Monument and a Sword and Spear crossing each other and laying over the Monument with the edge and point turning upward.  On each horn of the Crescent, a delicate chain was to be fastened, the two chains meeting in the center of the Star.  On the reverse of the Crescent the members' name would be engraved.  We were not entirely satisfied with this Badge but it was the best that suggested itself at the time and would answer our present necessity.  It was therefore adopted and for a year or more was worn as a pendant on the left breast, attached either to a guard chain or a narrow ribbon.  Just before I left college in 1832 it was changed to the present form of a breast pin."


The Crest


The Crest, which is our coat of arms, consists of the shield or escutcheon divided vertically in equal parts of green and white.  It is bordered in black and studded with pearls.  There is a small gold line between the center part of the shield and the border which has no particular significance except as a line of partition.  On the shield in honor point are three Greek letters, horizontally aligned, alpha, delta, phi in gold.  Above the shield is an esquires helmet in profile facing left with visor closed.  Behind the shield is a Sword and Spear, both pointing upwards and both crossed saltirewise.  Flanking the shield and issuing from the scroll on either side are two gold sprays of laurel leaved in gold.  Beneath the escutcheon is a motto ribbon bearing the Latin phrase "Manus Multae Cor Unum", meaning "many hands, one heart".  The whole escutcheon is radiant, meaning rays emanate from the top between the Spearpoint and Sword and base.  There is a nimbus of very fine stars around the outer perimeter of the lower nimbus.  Beneath the scroll is the date "1832".


To simplify reproduction, an alternative form of the Crest have been approved that replaced the full rays with thin linear rays.  In addition, a Crest with escutcheon, motto scroll, and the date 1832 is available for use.


Recognizing the pride members of Alpha Delta Phi have in their affiliation with the fraternity, no rules exist which limit the use of the Crest.   Rules concerning the design of the Crest and its alternative forms may only be specified by the Fraternity in Convention.


Rules restricting the use of the Crest in certain circumstances may be enacted by local chapters.








The Fraternity colors are emerald green and white with black and gold as subsidiaries.


The Fraternity flower is the lily of the valley, the leaf representing the emerald green of the Badge and the blossoms representing the pearls.


The pledge pin is a shield divided vertically with the left half colored green and the right half colored white.  Rules regarding the wearing of the pledge pin are established by each chapter.


The Greek Letters alpha, delta, phi may be used on personal articles, chapter effects, and decals.  Rules regarding the use of these Greek letters are established by each chapter.




The "Brothers-in-Arms" statue is a unique memorial to the 2,300 men of our fraternity, of Canada and the United States, who served in World War I, and especially for the 93 Brothers who made the supreme sacrifice.


The 88th Convention authorized Capt. Robert Aitken to create the memorial.  Capt. Aitken's monuments and statues may still be seen in many cities throughout the United States, but his major work was the nine-figured sculpture of the front of the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C.  The sum of $25,000 was raised by subscription to cover the cost of the memorials, which were then placed in the 26 Chapters then active.


The embodiment of the memorial is a statue in bronze, representing two young officers, one an American and the other a Canadian, wounded and helping each other through the fire of battle.  They symbolize brotherhood, service, leadership, and sacrifice and are intended for all time to remind the rising generations of Alpha Delta Phi of the great ideals of the Fraternity.




Created at the 160th Convention of Alpha Delta Phi in August 1992, the Alpha Delta Phi Society was founded as a solution to a two decade long division in Alpha Delta Phi over the inclusion of gender limitations in the Constitution.  As the Alpha Delta Phi Constitution specifies a membership restriction to only male members, the "coeducational" chapters found themselves in a constitutional dilemma that required many years to resolve.


The Alpha Delta Phi Society was created by the then existing five coeducational chapters of Middletown, Brunonian, Columbia, Stanford, and Bowdoin.  These five chapters withdrew from Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity and formed the "Society".  The Society maintains separate officers, constitution, by-laws, Convention, and operations.  The relationship between the Fraternity and the Society is elaborated and protected by Fraternity Constitutional provisions and an Agreement that was accepted by both organizations and unanimously endorsed by the 160th Convention of Alpha Delta Phi.


As the environment of higher education evolves, it is hoped that, some day, the Fraternity and Society may once again join within Alpha Delta Phi.





 1.         1832-                Hamilton Chapter                   Hamilton College

                                    Hamilton College                    Clinton, N.Y. 13323

                                    Clinton, New York                    


 2.         1835-1873          Miami Chapter                       22 South Campus Avenue

            1951-                Miami University                      Oxford, OH  45056

                                    Oxford, Ohio    


 3.         1836-1873          Yale Chapter                          (1993 Mailing Address)

            1888-1935          Yale University                        22 Lynwood

            1990-                New Haven, Connecticut            New Haven, CT  06511


 4.         1846-                Peninsular Chapter                   556 South State Street

                                    University of Michigan               Ann Arbor, MI  48104

                                    Ann Arbor, Michigan


 5.         1850-                Rochester Chapter                    P.O. Box 29006

                                    University of Rochester              River Station

                                    Rochester, New York                 Rochester, N.Y. 


 6.         1858-                Kenyon Chapter                       East Wing  P.O. Box 71

                                    Kenyon College                        Gambier, OH  43022

                                    Gambier, Ohio


 7.         1859-                Union Chapter                         Union College

                                    Union College                          Schenectady, N.Y.  12308

                                    Schenectady, New York


 8.         1869-                Cornell Chapter                        777 Stewart Avenue

                                    Cornell University                      Ithaca, N.Y.  14850

                                    Ithaca, New York


 9.         1877-                Phi Kappa Chapter                    122 Vernon Street

                                    Trinity College                          Hartford, CT  06106

                                    Hartford, Connecticut


10.        1889-1969          Johns Hopkins Chapter              5 East 33rd Street

            1982-                Johns Hopkins University            Baltimore, Maryland 21218

                                    Baltimore, Maryland


11.        1892-                Minnesota Chapter                     1725 University Ave. S.E.

                                    University of Minnesota              Minneapolis, MN  55414

                                    Minneapolis, Minnesota


12.        1893-                Toronto Chapter                        94 Prince Arthur Avenue

                                    University of Toronto                  Toronto, Ontario M5R 1B6

                                    Toronto, Ontario  Canada            Canada


13.        1896-                Chicago Chapter                         5747 University Avenue

                                    University of Chicago                  Chicago, Illinois  60637

                                    Chicago, Illinois


14.        1897-                Memorial Chapter                       3483 Stanley Street

                                    McGill University                        Montreal, Quebec H3A 1S2

                                    Montreal, Quebec Canada


15.        1902-                Wisconsin Chapter                     640 North Henry Street

                                    University of Wisconsin              Madison, Wisconsin  53703

                                    Madison, Wisconsin


16.        1908-                California Chapter                      2422 Prospect Avenue

                                    University of California               Berkeley, California 94704

                                    Berkeley, California


17.        1911-                Illinois Chapter                          310 East John Street

                                    University of Illinois                   Champaign, Illinois  61820

                                    Champaign, Illinois


18.        1921-                Washington Chapter                   2106 N.E. 47th Street

                                    University of Washington            Seattle, Washington  98105

                                    Seattle, Washington


19.        1926-                British Columbia Chapter             2270 Wesbrook Crescent

                                    Univ. of British Columbia             Vancouver, B.C.V6T 1W6

                                    Vancouver, British Columbia         Canada


20.        1977-                Lambda Phi Chapter                   351 Massachusetts Avenue

                                    M.I.T.                                      Cambridge, Mass. 02139

                                    Cambridge, Massachusetts


21.        1978-                Massachusetts Chapter                (1993 Mailing Address)

                                    University of Massachusetts          27 Phillips Street

                                    Amherst, Massachusetts               Amherst, MA 01003


22.        1985-                Great Lakes Chapter                   523 Park Lane

                                    Michigan State Univ.                   East Lansing, MI 48823

                                    East Lansing, Michigan


23.        1985-                Buffalo Chapter                         42 Minnesota Avenue

                                    SUNY - Buffalo                          Buffalo, N.Y.  14214

                                    Buffalo, New York


24.        1987-                Adelpho Chapter                        (1993 Mailing Address)

                                    Chapman College                       c/o ASB, 333 N. Glassell

                                    Orange, California                      Orange, CA  92666


25.        1987-                Virginia Chapter                         1603 Grady Avenue

                                    University of Virginia                  Charlottesville, VA  22903

                                    Charlottesville, Virginia




            1992-                University of Western Ontario

                                    London, Ontario  Canada




1.          1836-1840         Columbia Chapter                       Joined Society 1992

            1881-                Columbia University

                                    New York, New York


2.          1836-1841         Brunonian Chapter                     Joined Society 1992

            1851-                Brown University

                                    Providence, Rhode Island


3.          1841-1972         Bowdoin Chapter                       Joined Society 1993

            1976-                Bowdoin College

                                    Brunswick, Maine


4.          1856-                Middletown Chapter                   Joined Society 1992

                                    Wesleyan University

                                    Middletown, Connecticut


5.          1916-                Stanford Chapter                        Joined Society 1992

                                    Stanford University                   

                                    Palo Alto, California





 1.         1835-1839          Urban Chapter

                                     New York University              New York, New York


 2.         1836-1988          Amherst Chapter

                                     Amherst College                   Amherst, Massachusetts


 3.         1837-1865          Harvard Chapter

            1879-1907          Harvard University                 Cambridge, Mass.


 4.         1840-1876          Geneva Chapter

                                     Hobart College                      Geneva, New York


 5.         1841-1964          Hudson Chapter

                                     Western Reserve Univ.            Cleveland, Ohio


 6.         1846-1969          Dartmouth Chapter

                                     Dartmouth College                 Hanover, New Hampshire


 7.         1850-1857          Alabama Chapter

                                     University of Alabama             Tuscaloosa, Alabama


 8.         1851-1969          Williams Chapter

                                     Williams College                      Williamstown, Mass.


 9.         1855-1913          Manhattan Chapter                   New York, New York

                                     College of the City of New York


10.        1857-1861          Cumberland Chapter

                                     Cumberland University               Lebanon, Tennessee


11.        1961-1969          Colby Chapter

                                     Colby College                           Waterville, Maine


12.        1963-1969          Madison Chapter

                                    Colgate University                      Hamilton, New York


13.        1966-1971          Santa Barbara Chapter

                                    University of California                Santa Barbara, California


14.        1968-1973          Long Beach Chapter

                                     California State College               Long Beach, California


15.        1939-1992          Northwestern Chapter

                                     Northwestern University              Evanston, Illinois





It is the power by virtue of which each chapter exists, for it both issues charters constituting them and brings to any chapter the collective strength of the whole.


It is the means by which services, assistance, and encouragement are rendered to chapters and individuals through loans, grants, and scholarships, Headquarter administration, Field Representative and Governor visitation, Fraternity publications and awards, and alumni assistance.


It is the stimulus to the Fraternity's growth via its vigorous expansion program.


It is the guardian and perpetuator of over 150 years of ritual and tradition.


It is the superstructure of continuity that allows a brother in one chapter to welcome -- and be welcomed by -- an initiate of another chapter as a kindred, with similar ideals, background, and experience.


It provides for the continuation of fraternal friendships, benefits, and values throughout life, through its active alumni.


It is the forum by which any chapter or individual may voice a concern, idea, or suggestion for the benefit of the whole.


It is the rallying point of the experience and expertise of thousands of Alpha Delts, thirty chapters, and over 150 years of distinguished progress.




Alpha Delta Phi International is the Fraternity's governmental and administrative unit.  Today the International is governed by the Convention, its supreme legislative body, and the Board of Governors, its chief executive.


The Convention

Except for those years when the normal schedule was interrupted by the Civil and World Wars, the International Convention has been held every year since 1853.  The first Convention was called in 1836.


The Convention is composed of one delegate elected from each undergraduate chapter and alumni organization, each delegate being entitled to one vote.  Each August, the Convention is hosted at a different location and presided over by an Honorary Chairman, both of which are chosen by the Board of Governors.


The convention hears annual reports from the Governors, approves the International's budget, decides constitutional questions and has appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the Board of Governors and the Chapters.


Between the business and leadership training sessions, Conventions are characterized by considerable socializing.  Brothers from all over the continent get acquainted, swap stories and songs, and raise a glass in the spirit of brotherhood.  Whether as a voting delegate or as an observer, all brothers are encouraged to attend a Convention at some time.


The Board of Governors

The Convention also elects the Board of Governors.  There are eleven Alumni Governors, elected for three year terms, and a Student Governor elected annually.  The terms of the Alumni Governors are staggered to provide continuity.  There are other restrictions on who may be elected to assure that no region or chapter may dominate the Board.


The Board of Governors generally holds four regular meetings each year.  One of these is at the Convention; others are held at various chapter houses in the fall, winter, and spring.


The Governors elect the President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer.  The President, with Board approval, may appoint an Assistant Treasurer and committee chairmen, who may or may not be Governors.  An undergraduate Assistant Secretary is elected by the undergraduate delegates of the Convention.  The Board of Governors appoints Regional Directors to coordinate activities of interest to nearby chapters and alumni organizations.


This structure reflects the Constitution as amended on April 21, 1968.  The Fraternity has not always been governed this way.  During the 19th century, as the Fraternity grew throughout the country, it became necessary to establish a central alumni organization to coordinate the activities of the undergraduate units.  In 1879 a corporation was formed under a special act of the New York State legislature known as "The Executive Council of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity."  This corporation was dissolved in 1968 with the adoption of a new Constitution by the 136th Convention.


Field Representative and Executive Director

In 1911, the office of Traveling Secretary was established.  Since then the position has been renamed "Field Representative", though the basic duties and qualifications remain the same.  The Field Representative is a recently graduated Alpha Delt employed to visit each of the various chapters, discuss chapter operations, suggest improvements and recommend innovation.  In 1991, the position of Field Representative was again renamed to Chapter Service Consultant.  The International also has a volunteer Executive Director who manages the International Office in Morton Grove, Illinois, and handles the daily administrative details of the Fraternity.  The Chapter Service Consultant(s) are the only salaried employees of the Alpha Delta Phi.  All other officers, governors and directors serve in a voluntary fashion.



From 1880 to 1885, the Executive Council published an annual magazine, the Star and Crescent.  This has been superceded in the present day by Xaipe (pronounced "ki-ray", after the Greek word for "Hail!").  As the International newsletter, Xaipe, is published twice yearly and sent to all living Alpha Delts.  The undergraduate newsletter, originally called the Field General and changed in 1980 to the Star and Crescent, is the responsibility of the Student Governor and deals with matters of undergraduate interest.  Xaipe and today's Star and Crescent are supplemented by many local chapter newsletters giving news

of the chapter and its alumni.


Starting in 1837, Catalogues have been issued from time to time, giving information about the Fraternity as a whole and individual chapters and listing all alumni.  Songbooks were published at New Haven in 1855; at New York in 1859; Albany, N.Y. in 1864; Geneva, N.Y. in 1869; Amherst, Mass. in 1875; and New York in 1896, 1904, 1912, and 1925.  An album of songs was made in 1974 and is available to the chapters.


The International Headquarters prints and distributes other practical materials.  The Comprehensive Chapter Officer's Manual advises officers on matters of fraternity leadership and administration.  Various pamphlets explain initiation fees, alumni relations programs, and services provided by the International Office.


The address of the International Headquarters is 9211 Waukegan Road, Morton Grove, Illinois  60053            Phone (312)965-1832.


The Alpha Delta Phi Foundation


The Foundation is a self-governing, tax exempt corporation founded August 1961, under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  It accepts deductible donations from Alpha Delts and others and makes grants and loans to chapters, individuals, and institutions of higher learning.  The grants are intended to promote intellectual interest or achievement with qualified educational and literary programs.  The Foundation has its own Board of Directors and functions independent of but in communication with the Fraternity.


Information concerning the Alpha Delta Phi Foundation may be obtained from: Robert S. Price  KENYON '58, Saul, Ewing, Renick, & Saul, 3800 Centre Sq. West, Philadelphia, PA 19102.




 Order of the Sword and Spear

First given in 1982, the order of the Sword and Spear is the newest of the awards which the fraternity can bestow.  One recipient is chosen each year from among the chapter nominations and is recognized for his outstanding service to the community, his chapter, and his brothers.  Applications are distributed in March and are due on May 15. The award is presented at the annual convention.


Samuel Eells Award

Established in 1939, it is given in recognition of distinguished public service to education, meritorious literary or artistic achievement and eminence in the business or professional world.


Alpha Delta Phi Award

Established in 1963, it is a special award given only when the Board of Governors adopts an authorizing resolution preceded by an explanatory preamble.


 Board of Governors Award

Established in 1961, it is given for extraordinary service to the Fraternity or to a particular chapter or both.


 Best Alumni Organization - The Andrew Onderdonk Award

This award is presented each year to the most outstanding alumni organization(s) of the Fraternity.  Criteria for judging include officer activity, publications, fund raising, financial management, and other special circumstances.


Most Improved Alumni Organization

This award is presented each year to the alumni organization demonstrating the most improvement in its overall status in the Fraternity.  Candidates include organizations which have experienced crisis situations and have now regained a leadership role in the Fraternity.  The award is presented at the annual convention.


Best Chapter Award - E. O. Blackman Award

This award is presented each year to the most outstanding chapter(s) of the Fraternity.  Criteria for judging include rush, pledge education, initiations, literary program, chapter finance, alumni relations, and other items outlined in the annual reports filed by each chapter.  The annual reports are distributed in March and are due 2 weeks after the conclusion of the spring school term.  The award is presented at the annual convention.


Most Improved Chapter

This award is presented each year to the chapter demonstrating the most improvement in its overall status in the Fraternity.  Candidates include chapters who have experienced crisis situations and have now regained a leadership role in the Fraternity.  Criteria for judging is based on the annual report filed by each chapter.  The annual reports are distributed in March and are due 2 weeks after the conclusion of the spring school term.  The award is presented at the annual convention.


Newsletter Award

This award is presented each year to the chapter producing the most effective newsletter.  Style, content, and timely distribution is considered.  For consideration in this category, the chapter must submit copies of its newsletter to the International Headquarters.  The award is presented at the annual convention.


Seward Scholarships

In 1897, when he was President of the Fraternity, Clarence A. Seward established the Seward Scholarship Fund.  The Fund grants scholarships to undergraduates on the basis of financial need, achievement in Alpha Delta Phi, and activities on campus.  The fund is administered by a committee appointed by the Board of Governors.


 Literary Competition

Befitting its long heritage as a literary fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi has since 1931 sponsored an annual Literary Competition.  All undergraduate members are eligible to enter in the categories of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and photography.  Plaques and cash prizes up to $1000 are awarded through the Alpha Delta Phi Literary Committee.




COME TROLL A STAVE      by James Weber Linn   CHICAGO 1897


Come troll a stave and drink a measure,

For unto him the world is fair,

Who holdeth in his heart the treasure

The Alpha Delt has hidden there.

For come the storm or pleasant weather,

Our star and crescent ride the sky,

As we live merrily together,

Who live in Alpha Delta Phi.


Her praises who grows tired of singing?

Her envied sons who do not know?

For round her altar proudly clinging

Our laurels round her shrine we throw.

A glass to every jolly fellow -

Gay shall we live until we die,

For life is always rich and mellow

For us in Alpha Delta Phi.


A GAY, GALLANT SHIP     by A.B. Judson   BRUNONIAN 1859


A gay, gallant ship with a well tried crew is the Alpha Delta Phi,

With form so fair and timbers true, and a flag that floats on high.


Then call all hands and spread all sail,

The roaring gale defy,

The moon and star will ne'er grow pale,

O'er the flag of the Alpha Delta Phi,

A.D. Phi, O'er the flag of the Alpha Delta Phi.


We fear not the gale, we fear not the foe,

The storm king's might we'll try,

With flashing guns we'll scare from the seas

The foes of the Alpha Delta Phi.


Then call all hands and spread all sail,

The roaring gale defy,

The moon and star will ne'er grow pale,

O'er the flag of the Alpha Delta Phi,

A.D. Phi, O'er the flag of the Alpha Delta Phi.




We come, we come, we come with a shout and song,

Singing always as we go marching on,

We are a merry, happy-go-lucky throng

In Alpha Delta Phi.

            We're the chosen band,

            United by true friendships tie,

            Swell the joyous strain

            To meet the echo from on high.

            Listen to the song

            We sing as we go marching by,

            We'll give a cheer for (chapter)

            And for Alpha Delta Phi.




Come all you good Alpha Delts, tune up your throats,

Vive la compaigne.

And lustily sing to the jolly old notes,

Vive la compaigne.


            Vive la vive la vive la va

            Vive la vive la, vive la va.

            Vive la va, hop sa sa,

            Vive la compaigne.


Away with the musty old books of the sages,

Vive la compaigne;

For warm hearts and loving need no printed pages;

Vive la compaigne.



So a health to each other let's drink one and all,

Vive la compaigne;

In friendship together whate'er may befall;

Vive la compaigne.



And health to our symbols, the Crescent and Star,

Vive la compaigne;

And health to their bearers, wherever they are;

Vive la compaigne.



And last to herself, our old A.D. Phi,

Vive la compaigne;

With a joyful shout and a goblet filled high,

Vive la compaigne.



ANOTHER BUSY WEEK         by Henry F. Colby  BRUNONIAN 1862


Another busy week has passed,

Swee de la wee dum bum,

And Friday night has come at last,

Swee de la wee dum bum;

Then brothers, lay your studies by,

Swee de la wee tchu hi ra sa,

And shout for Alpha Delta Phi,

Swee de la wee dum bum.


            Litoria! Litoria!

            Swee de la wee tchu hi ra sa.

            Litoria! Litoria!

            Swee de la wee dum bum.


The evening star sheds beams of peace,

Swee de la wee dum bum

The crescent's silver horns increase,

Swee de la wee dum bum

And would you know the reason why?

Swee de la wee tchu hi ra sa,

They're signs of Alpha Delta Phi.

Swee de la wee dum bum.



What wealth is there in any land,

Swee de la wee dum bum

What gems upon the ocean sand,

Swee de la wee dum bum

That could with all their beauty buy,

Swee de la wee tchu hi ra sa,

Our hearts from Alpha Delta Phi?

Swee de la wee dum bum.





While toasting all the friends we love,

Oh, let us not forget

The lovely ones, whose memory

Is ling'ring with us yet.

Old Horace wrote of rosy lips;

Bright eyes and sunny curls.

He could have had no fairer text

Than the Alpha Delta girls;


            The Alpha Delta girls, the Alpha Delta girls,

            He could have had no fairer text

            Than the Alpha Delta girls.


They may not gather round our shrine

Nor learn our signs and grips;

Their tongues, alas, we cannot trust,

Our faith is in their lips.

And when our Crescent rides the sky,

Our Star its brow impearls,

Beneath our symbols we will pledge

The Alpha Delta girls.



And if they wish to join us

The way is simply this:

We take them gently by the hand

And then imprint a kiss;

And if they chance to murmur,

Or ask the reason why,

We tell them that's the secret grip

Of Alpha Delta Phi.



In after years when we look back

On all our joys and bliss,

Our lips will move in righteous pride,

And softly murmur this:

Our love is pure and strong and true,

And it will never die,

For the ones who pledges their troth to us

in Alpha Delta Phi,





When the evening shadows gather

Over Kenyon's silent halls,

Bells are hushed and lights are twinkling,

Dreamily along the walls,


Oh, how sweet to steal in quiet,

Out beneath the winter sky,

Wend our way beyond the campus,

To thy temple, A.D. Phi!


From the swelling vault above us

Every star that gems the night

Whispers: "In the field of action

Let each sun dispense thy light."


And our Crescent's softened radiance

Has a voice that will no die:

"Ever bright, be ever modest,

True to Alpha Delta Phi!"


Treasuring up these sacred lessons,

Taught by nature to the heart,

In thy service we are chastened

To perform a nobler part.


When around the shrine we circle,

Every manly, sparkling eye

Tells of pure ambition strengthened

By thy symbols, A.D. Phi.




Silver moonlight memories, haunting me every day.

Eyes that promise beauty, in every tender way.

The kiss from your lips still lingers,

The thrill will last 'til I die.

You'll have my love forever,

Here in A. D. Phi.


WOULD YOU KNOW?  by H.L. Chapman  BOWDOIN 1866


Would you know the lights that fairest

Deck the azure sky?

They're the Star and silv'ry Crescent

Of our A. D. Phi.


Window lights in Heaven's bright mansions

Gleaming thro' the night,

Their soft rays o'er Alpha Delta

Shed a golden light.


Beam o'er us,

Star and Crescent,

Guide us till we die,

Each a brother, loving truly

Alpha Delta Phi.


Would you kneel around an altar

Whence ascends on high

Friendship's incense?  It is burning

In our A. D. Phi.


Ever bright the fires are glowing,

And the sweet perfume

Of that holy friendship lingers

'Round each brother's tomb.




Would you join a band of brothers

Where each beaming eye

Tells of pleasures never ceasing,

Join our A. D. Phi.


Hand to hand we stand united,

And from heart to heart

Runs a bond of friendship plighted

Time can never part.






As I sit tonight by the red firelight,

Watching the embers glow,

Now far, now near, I seem to hear

The Voices of long ago.


In triumphant strain that old refrain

Rings out on the midnight clear,

And hand in hand once more I stand,

With brothers and comrades clear.


            O Alpha Delta Phi

            Dear Alpha Delta Phi,

            To thy fame and glory bright,

            Sing we again our song tonight.

            The Crescent and the Star,

            Our emblems, shine afar,

            And we'll love them till we die,

            Oh, Alpha Delta Phi.


The world knows not how strong the tie

That binds us one and all,

But deems the link is broken soon

As we leave our college hall.


In vain they scoff and sneer,

they learn as years go by,

No pow'r can break the tie that binds

In Alpha Delta Phi.




HAIL TO THEE     by C.R. Palmer     YALE 1855


Hail to thee, hail to thee, fair Alpha Delta,

Our hearts, best affections are plighted to thee.

Never was troubadour's lady-love fairer,

Nymph of the forest nor maid of the sea.


            Around thee we'll gather, while enemies threaten,

            Thy sons shall defend thee when danger is nigh;

            And far distant shores shall re-echo the paean,

            Long live Alma Mater and old A. D. Phi.

            Long live Alma Mater and old A. D. Phi.


Although the world knows the tie that unites us,

And sees but the casket enclosing the gem;

All honor the goddess whose tie so unites us,

And envy the pleasures forbidden to them.




We'll cherish thee fondly till life's latest hour,

And on our heart's altar thine image enshrine;

Sweet mem'ries of thee will by age gather power

Like the sparkling nectar of Italy's vine.






The following individuals are among the most prominent alumni of Alpha Delta Phi.  The list includes past and present activities and is in no sense all-inclusive.



                        Joshua L. Chamberlain                Bowdoin                       1852

                                    Governor of Maine

                                    President of Bowdoin College

                                    Congressional Medal of Honor recipient - Gettysburg

                        Salmon P. Chase                        Dartmouth                     1826

                                    Secretary of the Treasury

                        Joseph H. Choate                        Harvard                        1852

                                    Ambassador to Great Britain

                        Dwight F. Davis                          Harvard                         1900

                                    Secretary of War, Donor of Davis Cup

                        William R. Day                           Peninsular                      1870

                                    Secretary of State

                        Charles S. Fairchild                     Harvard                          1863

                                    Secretary of the Treasury

                        James R. Garfield                        Williams                        1885

                                    Secretary of the Interior

                        Frederick H. Gillett                       Amherst                        1874

                                    Speaker, House of Representatives

                        Frank O. Horton                          Chicago                        1903

                                    U.S. Senator, Governor of Wyoming

                        Otto Kerner, Jr.                          Brunonian                     1930

                                    Governor of Illinois

                        Charles H. Percy                         Chicago                         1941

                                    U.S. Senator

                        Franklin D. Roosevelt                   Harvard                         1904

                                    President of the United States

                        Theodore Roosevelt                     Harvard                        1880

                                    President of the United States



                        Bishop Henry D. Aves                           Kenyon                         1878

                        Bishop Frederick Burgess                       Brunonian                     1873

                        Bishop Sheldon M. Griswold                   Union                           1882

                        Bishop John M. Kendrick                        Kenyon                         1859

                        Bishop Theodore B. Lyman                     Hamilton                       1837

                        Bishop H. Clifford Northcott                    Northwestern                  1919

                        Bishop Lyman C. Ogilby                         Hamilton                       1943

                        Bishop Lauriston L. Scaife                       Phi Kappa                     1931

                        Bishop Herbert Shipman                         Columbia                       1890

                        Bishop Dudley S. Stark                           Phi Kappa                     1917



                        Henry B. Brown                         Yale                              1856

                                    Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

                        Salmon P. Chase                        Dartmouth                     1826

                                    Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

                        William R. Day                           Peninsular                      1870

                                    Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

                        Oliver Wendell Holmes                Harvard                          1861

                                    Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

                        Dana H. Porter                          Toronto                          1921

                                    Chief Justice of Ontario

                        William B. Scott                         McGill                            1912

                                    Chief Justice, Superior Court of Quebec

                        George Shiras, Jr.                       Yale                              1853

                                    Justice, U.S. Supreme Court

                        Harlan F. Stone                          Amherst                        1894

                                    Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court



                        Samuel Hopkins Adams              Hamilton                       1891


                        Philip Barry                              Yale                             1918


                        Stephen Vincent Benet               Yale                              1919


                        Richard G. Eberhart                    Minnesota                     1926


                        John Farrar                               Yale                              1918

                                    Poet, Publisher

                        Henry R. Luce                           Yale                              1920

                                    Publisher, Time, Life

                        Thorton Wilder                          Yale                              1920

                                    Author & Playwright



                        Charles W. Eliot                                    Harvard                        1853

                                    President Harvard University

                        G. Keith Funtson                                   Phi Kappa                     1932

                                    President of Trinity College

                        Robert M. Hutchins                                Yale                             1921

                                    President University of Chicago

                        Eugene V. Rostow                                 Yale                              1933

                                    Dean Yale School of Law

                                    Advisor to State Department

                        Thomas B. Rudd                                    Hamilton                       1921

                                    President of Hamilton College



                        MacDonald Carey                                    Wisconsin                    1935


                        Frederick March                                      Wisconsin                    1920


                        Franchot Tone                                       Cornell                         1927


                        Monte Woolley                                      Yale                              1911




                        Dr. Frederick M. Allen                           California          1902

                                    Pioneer in Diabetes

                        Farrington Daniels                                Minnesota         1910

                                    Pioneer in Solar Energy

                                    Chairman of Chemistry at University of Wisconsin

                        Dr. Hans Lisser                                     California          1907

                                    Pioneer in Gland Disorders

                        William H. Masters                                 Hamilton           1938

                                    Researcher in Human Sexuality

                        Louis Nicot Ridenour                             Chicago             1932

                                    Member of the Atomic Energy Commission



                        C.F.W. Bruce                                         Toronto 1926

                                    President Aluminum Company of Canada

                        G. Keith Funtson                                   Phi Kappa         1932

                                    President of New York Stock Exchange

                        William R. Grace                                    Columbia           1900

                                    W.R. Grace & Company

                        Arthur B. Homer                                    Brunonian         1917

                                    President of Bethlehem Steel Company

                        Charles H. Percy                                    Chicago             1941

                                    Chairman Bell & Howell Corporation

                        Phillip W. Pillsbury                                  Yale                  1924

                                    President, The Pillsbury Company

                        John D. Rockefeller, Jr.                           Brunonian           1897

                                    Financier & Philanthropist

                        Elwyn L. Smith                                      Cornell              1917

                                    President Smith Corona Typewriter Company

                        Allan Sproul                                          California          1919

                                    Director Kaiser Aluminum

                        Grant Tinker                                          Dartmouth        1949

                                    President National Broadcasting Corporation

                        Frederick K. Weyerhaeuser                       Yale                  1917

                                    Chairman Weyerhauser Company


The Constitution of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI




THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, in Convention assembled on the 21st day of April, 1968, adopts this Constitution, in conjunction with its Covenant and Symbols, as its fundamental law.




            Section 1.  THE ALPHA DELTA PHI is a voluntary membership organization.


            Section 2.  The objectives of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI are the cultivation of character, learning, and enduring friendships.  To these ends, there are and shall be established Chapters in universities and colleges and Alumni Organizations in cities and regions.


            Section 3.  The membership shall consist of male Student Brothers and male Alumni Brothers who have been inducted into THE ALPHA DELTA PHI and whose relationship has not been severed.  A Student Brother is an undergraduate or graduate student and a member of the Chapter located at his university or college.  An Alumnus Brother is a Brother who either is not a Student Brother or is a member of the faculty or administration of a university or college, inducted by the Chapter at that university or college.


            Section 4.  The qualifications for induction as a Student Brother shall be good general scholarship, ability and diligence in the pursuit of learning, and those qualities of heart and character which will commend one to one's associates throughout life.


            Section 5.  No manner of prejudice shall be allowed any weight in determining qualifications for induction as a Brother.  No person shall be inducted as a Brother who acknowledges an equal or superior allegiance to any like organization, nor may any Brother thereafter take upon himself such an allegiance.  Each Chapter shall have the power to indict a Brother by vote of its Student Brothers under By-Laws submitted to the Board of Governors which shall be consonant with the principles set forth in this Article.


            Section 6.  No candidate for induction shall be subjected to any punishment, hazard, or indignity that might be injurious to his well-being or human dignity or to the reputation of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.


            Section 7.  The literary plan of the Fraternity shall embrace the various departments of the arts and sciences.  And, in order that, by the due concentration of culture, he may be able to perform reasonable service by scholarship in the world, each Brother shall be expected to choose in which of these departments his work will most avail and, thereafter, in his literary and personal offices, to inform, to quicken, and to broaden the life of his associates in connection with the department chosen.




            Section 1.  Each Chapter shall have a President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer, each of whom shall be elected from its Student Brothers, and whom shall serve for one year or such shorter period as the By-Laws of each Chapter shall provide.


            Section 2.  The President of the Chapter shall be its chief executive officer and shall be responsible for the welfare of the Chapter.  He shall preside at Chapter meetings.  He shall supervise the Secretary and the Treasurer in the performance of their duties.  He shall have the power to assign duties to Student Brothers when such duties are not otherwise assigned.  He shall advise Student Brothers about the performance of their obligations to THE ALPHA DELTA PHI and their conduct towards the community.


            Section 3.  The Vice President shall have primary responsibility for the Chapter's relations with the Alumni Brothers.  In the event of the absence, resignation, disability, or death of the President, he shall serve as the acting President.


            Section 4.  The Secretary and Treasurer shall perform the usual duties of such officers.  Each of them shall file with the Board of Governors the information that the Board requests, in such form as it prescribes.





            Section 1.  It shall be the primary purpose of each Chapter to foster the objectives of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.  Each Chapter shall promote the welfare and encourage an understanding of and respect for the traditions of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.  To this end, each Chapter shall cultivate its relations with Alumni Brothers, fraternize with and aid other Chapters, participate in the activities of its university or college, maintain a harmonious relationship with faculty and administration, and contribute to the community in which the Chapter is located.  Each Student Brother shall foster these objectives and extend them into all areas of his life.


            Section 2.  Each Student Brother shall take part in the affairs of the Chapter and shall attend its meeting.  Each Chapter shall hold a meeting at least once each month of the academic year, which shall include an explanation of the Symbols and readings from the Covenant and the Constitution.


            Section 3.  Each Chapter shall have a Literary or other educational program.  The program shall be extra-curricular and its objectives shall be to broaden the knowledge and culture of the Student Brothers, as is compatible with the literary traditions reflected in the Covenant.  The program may include the participation of persons other than Student Brothers.


            Section 4.  Each Chapter shall have a Chairman of the program.  The duties of the Chairman shall include the establishment of the program and the supervision of the activities of the Student Brothers in carrying it forward.





            Section 1.  The Board of Governors of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI shall be its chief executive.  Its responsibility shall be the welfare and government of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.  It shall have the power to grant a Charter to a Chapter by a two-thirds vote of the Governors, subject to ratification by a Convention.  It shall have the power to waive the restrictions of ARTICLE 1, Section 3, as to location and employment by unanimous vote of the Governors.  In addition to the express powers granted to it, it shall have all implied powers it needs to discharge those responsibilities.


            Section 2.  The Board of Governors shall consist of Governors and ex-officio Governors.  Its ex-officio Governors shall be the Honorary Chairman and each officer of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI who is not a Governor.  Effective with the 141-Convention, its Governors shall be nine in number, eight of whom shall be Alumni Brothers and one of whom shall be a Student Brother.


            If the Student Brother becomes an Alumnus Brother during his term of office, he shall continue as a Governor for the rest of his term.


            The Student Brother elected as a Governor shall be elected by the Student Delegates or their alternates to the Convention.


            Alumni Governors shall be elected to provide regional representation.  No Alumnus Brother shall be eligible for election as an Alumnus Governor if his election would place more than two Alumni Governors on the Board from the same region.  Subsequent moving of residence by an Alumni Governor shall not disqualify him or any other Governor from serving out their respective terms.  Additionally, no Alumnus Brother shall be eligible for election as an Alumnus Governor if his election would place more than two Alumni Governors on the Board who were Student Brothers of the same Chapter.


            Notwithstanding the above, effective upon ratification after the 145th Convention, there shall be three additional Governors elected to staggered three year terms without restriction as to their residence, chapter, or status as a Student or Alumnus Brother.


            Section 3.  The Alumni Governors shall be elected for staggered terms of three years.  The Student Governor shall be elected for a one year term.  Each Governor shall serve at the pleasure of the Convention.  In the event of the death, resignation or disability of a Governor during his term, the Board of Governors shall fill the vacancy by appointing an interim Governor, until a successor shall be elected by the next Convention to fill the unexpired portion of the term.  If any Convention fails to fill an unexpired portion of a term, the Governors shall elect a Governor to fill the term.


            No Student Governor shall serve more than two consecutive terms as a Student Governor.  No Alumni Governor shall serve more than three consecutive terms.  No Student Governor shall be elected an Alumnus Governor until the Convention following the one at which he completed his second consecutive term as a Student Governor.


            At the pleasure of the Board, a former Governor may attend meetings of the Board and may participate but not vote.


            Section 4.  The officers of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI shall be a President, a Vice President, a Treasurer, and a Secretary.  The President, Vice President, and Treasurer shall be elected and directed by the Board of Governors.  The Secretary shall be appointed by the President and shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.  An Honorary Chairman may be elected by the Board of Governors.


            Section 5.  The Honorary Chairman shall hold office for a term determined by the Board of Governors.  He shall preside at the Convention.  He shall have those responsibilities and duties that he shall voluntarily assume with the consent of the Board of Governors.


            Section 6.  The President and Vice President shall be, and the Treasurer may be, elected from among the Governors.  Each of them shall serve unto his successor is elected.  The Secretary need not be a Governor or a member of the Fraternity.


            Section 7.  The President shall be the chief executive officer of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.  He shall preside at meetings of the Board of Governors.


            Section 8.  The Vice President shall have responsibility for all matters pertaining to Alumni Brothers.  In the event of the absence, resignation, disability, or death of the President, he shall serve as the acting President.


            Section 9.  The Treasurer shall have the customary power and duties of that office.


            Section 10.  The Secretary shall also hold the office of Executive Secretary and he may be elected Treasurer.  The Secretary shall have the customary powers and duties of the office.


            Section 11.  The Board of Governors may appoint an Assistant Treasurer or an Assistant Secretary or both, who shall have the respective powers of their offices.


            Section 12.  In addition to the powers set forth in Section 1 of this article, the Board of Governors shall have the power, from time to time, to enter into agreements with the Alpha Delta Phi Society, subject to the ratification by two-thirds vote by the delegates at the next succeeding International Convention, until which time said agreement shall be in force.  If not ratified as above specified, it shall become null and void at the conclusion of said Convention.





            Section 1.  The Board of Governors shall promote the interest and participation of Alumni Brothers in THE ALPHA DELTA PHI. To this end, the Board shall have the power to grant Charters to Alumni Organizations on a Chapter or geographic basis.


            Section 2.  Each Alumni Organization shall be an integral part of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, and its officers and members shall account to the Board of Governors for the work of their Organization.


            Section 3.  There shall be, so far as possible, a Chapter Alumni Organization for each Chapter.  The membership of each such Organization shall embrace each Alumnus Brother who has been a Student Brother of the Chapter and each other Alumnus Brother that the Organization shall admit.


            Section 4.  The principal concern of each Chapter Alumni Organization shall be the welfare of its Chapter.


            Section 5.  Each Alumnus Brother shall help strengthen the several Chapters and improve their relations with each other, participate in the activities of his Alumni Organization, aid the Board of Governors in the discharge of its duties, and use his best efforts to stimulate and induce in each Brother a more complete realization of the objectives of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.





            Section 1.  The Board of Governors shall create Regions of the Fraternity, which it may revise from time to time.  There shall be a Regional Director for each Region.  The Region shall consist of all Chapters and Alumni Organizations within the territory of the Region.


            Section 2.  Each Region shall have a Director and such Deputy Directors, as from time to time may be appointed.  Each Director and Deputy Director shall be appointed by account to and serve at the pleasure of the Board of Governors and shall be an Alumnus Brother but need not have to be a Student Brother of a Chapter located within his Region.


            Section 3.  Within his territory, each Director shall serve as a vehicle of communication between the Board of Governors and the Chapter and Alumni Organizations, encourage and work toward the establishment of new Chapters at colleges and universities, promote the welfare of the Chapter and Alumni Organizations, and aid the Chapter Alumni Committees in the performance of their duties, but shall not be directly responsible for the Chapters.  Each Director shall promote the interest of the Alumni Bothers in THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, encourage reunions and help form and guide the Alumni Organizations.  Each Director shall perform the other duties delegated to him by this Constitution, the By-Laws, the Board of Governors or the President of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.


            Section 4.  Each Chapter shall have a Chapter Alumni Committee, which shall be responsible for that Chapter and shall be accountable to THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, the Board of Governors, and the Chapter Alumni Organization for the state of that Chapter.  The members of such Committee shall be Alumni Brothers.  The members and their number shall be determined by the Board of Governors.  The Director or Deputy Director of the Region shall be a member.  Unless circumstances otherwise require, not less than one nor more than two of the other members of a Chapter Alumni Committee shall have been Student Brothers of a different Chapter.  In making appointments, the Board of Governors shall give prime consideration to timely nominations from Alumni Brothers of the Chapter.


            Section 5.  Unless circumstances otherwise require, three members of each Chapter Alumni Committee shall serve as its Chairman, Secretary, and Treasurer, and the Chairman, who shall have been a Student Brother of that Chapter, shall be elected annually by the members of the Chapter Alumni Committee.  The Secretary and the Treasurer shall be appointed annually by the Chairman.


            Section 6.  The Chapter Alumni Committee shall be responsible for liaison between its Chapter and THE ALPHA DELTA PHI and, to that end, shall carry out such duties as the Board of Governors may assign.





            Section 1.  The supreme legislative power shall be vested in the Convention which shall be held annually at such time and place as a preceding annual Convention shall determine, or failing such determination as the Board of Governors shall decide.  The Convention shall have original jurisdiction over constitutional questions and appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the Board of Governors and of the Chapters.


            Section 2.  A special Convention shall be held upon not less than sixty days written notice, specifying the time and place thereof, to each Chapter and Alumni Organization.  It may be called by an annual Convention, by the Board of Governors by a call of at least two-thirds of the Chapters.


            Section 3.  The delegates to each Convention shall include Student Brothers and Alumni Brothers.  Each Chapter shall accredit one delegate and one alternate, who shall be Student Brothers of the accrediting Chapter.  Each Chapter Alumni Organization shall accredit one delegate and one alternate who shall be Alumni Brothers but need not have been Student Brothers of that Chapter.  If such an Organization does not exist or fails to act, the responsible Chapter Alumni Committee shall accredit such delegates.  Only delegates, or in their absence, their alternates, present in person, may vote.  Each delegate or alternate shall have one vote.  Except ordered by the Convention or otherwise provided in this Constitution, all matters before the Convention shall be determined by the vote of a majority of the delegates or alternate entitled to vote.  A vote by ballot shall be required only requested by not less than five percent of the delegates or to alternates entitled to participate in such vote.


            Section 4.  The presiding officer at each Convention annual or special, shall be the Honorary Chairman, or, in his absence, the President, or, in the absence of both, the Vice President.  The Secretary of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI or, in his absence, an Acting Secretary appointed by the presiding officer, shall serve as Secretary of the Convention and record its proceedings.  Two-thirds of the accredited delegates or their alternates entitled to vote shall constitute a quorum.


            Section 5.  Each annual Convention and each special Convention shall be governed by the rules in force at the annual Convention preceding, unless it suspends or amends the same by a two-thirds vote of all the accredited delegates or alternates entitled to vote or, in the case of a special Convention unless a prior annual Convention shall otherwise order.





            Section 1.  Each Alumni Convention may assess annual dues against its members and may raise funds by other methods.  Any method involving solicitation of Student or other Alumni Brothers or their relatives shall be coordinated by the Board of Governors, in consultation with the Alumni Organization or Chapter involved.  Assets owned or held by any Alumni Organization or a Chapter Alumni Committee, whether or not earmarked for a particular Chapter or a particular purpose, shall be assets in the disposition of which THE ALPHA DELTA PHI has an interest and their disposition for other than money's worth or fair value, to whomsoever, except for the use and benefit of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, its Chapters, or Student Brother scholarships, or in accordance with instructions of donors or conditions imposed by, them, shall require the written authorization of the Board of Governors.  Each Alumni Organization and each Chapter Alumni Committee holding assets shall submit an annual financial statement to the Board of Governors.


            Section 2.  The Board of Governors shall submit to each annual Convention a budget of anticipated expenditures and income of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI for the period starting with the adjournment of that Convention and ending with the adjournment of the next annual Convention.  Each annual Convention shall have power to adopt the budget as submitted, or to amend it in general or in particular.


            Section 3.  The Board of Governors shall, in light of the budget adopted by the annual Convention, fix and assess those taxes upon the Chapters and upon the Chapter Alumni Organizations that it determines to be necessary to meet the expenses of the budget.  Those taxes shall be assessed on Chapter and Chapter Alumni Organizations in direct proportion to the number of living Brothers belonging to each.  The Board of Governors shall provide rules and penalties appropriate for the assessment and collection of the above taxes.


            Section 4.  The Board of Governors may fix and assess an initiation fee on a Brother inducted under ARTICLE I.


            Section 5.  The levies of all taxes and fees by the Board of Governors are to be subject to the prior approval of the Convention.





            Section 1.  On motion of a Student Brother of a Chapter or a majority of the Chapter Alumni Committee, followed by the affirmative vote of three-fourths of the Student Brothers, a Chapter may suspend or expel a Student Brother subject to the approval of the Board of Governors and the appellate jurisdiction of the Convention.


            Section 2.  The Board of Governors may suspend or expel an Alumnus Brother by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the Governors, subject to the appellate jurisdiction of the Convention.


            Section 3.  The Board of Governors may suspend or revoke the Charter of a Chapter or Alumni Organization by a unanimous vote of the Governors, followed by the approval of two-thirds of the Delegates to the next Convention.  Until that approval, the Charter will be suspended.


            Section 4.  The Chapter shall not suspend or expel a Student Brother or the Board shall not suspend or expel an Alumnus Brother unless it finds that he has so flagrantly violated his vows, disregarded his fraternal obligations, or transgressed the rules of life as to sever in spirit his connection with THE ALPHA DELTA PHI.


            Section 5.  There shall be no suspension, expulsion, or revocation unless the provisions of ARTICLE X have been met.  All proceedings under this Article shall comply with all appropriate By-Laws.


            Section 6.  The Board of Governors may accept the resignation of a Brother.





            Section 1.  This Constitution shall remain inviolate and unaltered until amended at a Convention by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of those entitled to vote at the Convention, followed by ratification by four-fifths of the Chapters casting, pursuant to a two-thirds vote of the Student Brothers of each such Chapter.


            The Secretary shall transmit each Amendment to the Chapters for ratification promptly after the Convention adjourns, and each Chapter shall promptly vote on it and certify the result to the Secretary.  A Chapter that fails to vote or to advise the Secretary of the result within one hundred and eighty days shall be recorded as not having cast a vote.  The Secretary shall promptly report the result to each Chapter and record any Amendment so ratified.


            Any agreement made between the Alpha Delta Phi and the Alpha Delta Phi Society shall take precedence over any subsequent amendments to this Constitution, to the extent that they might impair or violate such agreement.


            Section 2.  Each proceeding of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, its Chapters, and its Alumni Organizations shall comply with appropriate By-Laws submitted to the Board of Governors.  By-laws, which may be amended, shall be consistent with provisions of this Constitution.  They shall meet the provisions of Section 3 of this Article, and if they do not, those provisions shall apply.  In that event only, no action shall be taken except by a majority vote of those present and voting.  Board of Governors shall determine whether By-Laws meet those provisions, subject to the appellate jurisdiction of Convention.


            Section 3.  Each proceeding of THE ALPHA DELTA PHI, a Chapter or an Alumni Organization shall assure due process of law to each Brother, Chapter, or Organization.  Due process of law shall include fair, timely, and sufficient written and assignment of cause to all parties affected; fair and sufficient hearing at a convenient time and place; right to representation, confrontation, and presentation of testimony witnesses; and permanent recording of votes and access to that record by the parties affected.





            This Constitution shall be submitted promptly to each Chapter for ratification.  This Constitution shall be effective after ratification by four-fifths of the Chapters, and upon calling of the succeeding annual Convention.




    In February 1903, twelve men at the University of Illinois organized a local fraternity which took the name of Pi Theta.  The organization's prime objective was to secure a charter to become a Chapter of Alpha Delta Phi.  This was the result of contact with a number of members of Alpha Delta Phi, especially two of the faculty of the University of Illinois, Herbert Jewett Barton, Professor of Latin (Dartmouth and Middletown, 1876) and Elliot Judd Northrup, Professor of Law (Amherst, 1892). Upon organization, the group rented a house in which the members lived and had their meals together.  The membership was composed entirely of men of standing and attainment in the University; and the group from its inception had the good will and respect of the University authorities.  The first formal petitions for a charter of Alpha Delta Phi were not granted, but the local organization had gained importance as a local fraternity and by the year 1906, it commanded the respect of a very considerable number of the Chapters of Alpha Delta Phi.
     Following the 1908 Convention of Alpha Delta Phi, representatives from all the Chapters, upon invitation, visited Illinois and Pi Theta Fraternity.  In 1911, the Charter was granted and the Illinois Chapter was installed at the University Club in Chicago, Illinois on January 13, 1912.  After the installation, Professor Barton became resident counselor and continued in that capacity until his death in September 1933.  The Illinois Chapter owes much to his memory for his great loyalty to Alpha Delta Phi, his exemplification of the finest traditions and ideals of the Fraternity, and his sympathetic leadership.
     The Chapter is also indebted to brother Henry W. Austin (Williams, 1888) who was a frequent visitor on campus and a wise counselor until his death in 1947, and who was, more than anyone else, responsible for the material progress of the Chapter from a small rented house to the beautiful and imposing house it now occupies on the site of the home of the University's first president.
     Despite formidable competition from over 50 national and international fraternities at the University, the Illinois Chapter is among the leaders on the Champaign-Urbana campus.  Among other accomplishments, Dad's Day, known as parent's Day at some schools, and a major football weekend at Illinois, originated with this Chapter.


This document originated with a manual that had been edited and produced by Mark E. Larson, Wisconsin '75. The latest editing was done by Jeff Smith '95.